External and Internal Factors of Personality Formation

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Research of processes of formation and development of the human personality is one of the most versatile and discussed questions of modern psychology. There is extensive scientific information that reveals the phenomenon of personal development and demonstrates that it has the imprint of age and individual features. There is no doubt that an individual’s personal development occurs throughout life. Nevertheless, the research’s critical issue is related to the degree of influence that various external factors have on the process of personal formation.

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Null Hypothesis

It is possible to assume that influence of external factors of environment, such as belonging of the individual to the particular ethnic, historical or socio-economic culture, and internal factors where genetic, biological, and physical determinants are included, do not render any appreciable effect on the formation of human personality.

Experimental Hypothesis

There is a direct correlation between the external and internal factors of the environment in which the individual grows and the process of personality formation.


Data Collection

To assess the degree of impact of external and internal environmental factors on the formation and development of personality, a special questionnaire was developed, representing a collection of forty questions. The questionnaires were to be filled in by absentee respondents with instructions of introductory biological and social data, such as sex, age, work status, marital status, ethnic and religious identity. When working with the questionnaire, the respondent answered unambiguous questions, choosing one of the following answer choices.


In order to improve the validity of the results and to enable qualitative confirmation of the experimental hypothesis on a sample basis, 230 people from different cultural, ethnic, age, and religious backgrounds volunteered for the survey. The participants’ demographic structure was 54 percent female and 46 percent male between the ages of 16 and 65. The average age of respondents was 34 years (SD 5 years). In addition, all participants interviewed live in the United States.


The questions indicated in the questionnaire comprehensively approached the formation of a general, objective picture of the study. In particular, the respondents were asked about the models of family education of their parents, the degree of satisfaction with their childhood, the presence of close friends or constant close social interactions, behavioral manners, and life priorities. Moreover, participants were asked for their opinion on contradictory life situations.

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It was assumed that personal formation could be defined through a set of views, attitudes, assessments, and behavioral patterns. The data obtained were subjected to a correlated multi-parameter statistical analysis to determine the nature and degree of relationships between different indicators. The key objective was to test the experimental hypothesis, so it was essential to evaluate the relationship between external and internal environment factors for the development of personality.


The individual’s development as a process of socialization is carried out in certain social conditions of the family, the immediate environment, the country, in certain socio-political and economic circumstances, and in the traditions of the people he represents. At the same time, at each stage of the life path, additional qualities are introduced into the already formed personality, which is caused by life conditions (Schwaba & Bleidorn, 2019; Tracy-Ventura et al., 2016). An extensive literature analysis shows that external and internal factors influence human personality (Hopwood et al., 2011; Rutkowski, Dembińska, & Walczewska, 2016). Nevertheless, it is not necessary to take influence too literally, because not every factor in a separate one directly affects the formation of personality (Čukić et al., 2016). Personal development is manifested in the changes that occur in the inner world: there is a change in needs and interests, the ability to take responsibility for their own decisions and manage their lives (Azarbarzin & Maliki, 2018). Maurer and Chapman (2018) argue that formed individuals are more often satisfied with the quality of their lives. Moreover, the scientific community tends to believe that the use of questionnaires as a method of personal research is appropriate (Tarar, Sharif, & Abbas, 2018: Tackett et al., 2019). However, it is critical to understand that the quality of the results is affected by several factors whose effects can be suppressed by statistical techniques (Sened et al., 2018).


Types of Sources

Most of the sources used are based on quantitative analysis methods, where questionnaires and surveys were conducted to obtain results. Ten research papers are primary studies that examine the phenomenon of personality formation in different ways. Nevertheless, it is not possible to draw conclusions based on only one of the works submitted. In order to minimize subjectivity, it is proposed to conduct a meta-analysis of an extensive list of reliable, high-quality scientific research.

Chosen Methods

Researching human nature is the most challenging task for psychology. As long as the methods of monitoring the psychoactive state of consciousness are not entirely developed, social research is conducted with the statistical polling of participants. Thanks to the chosen method, it is possible to involve many respondents in the research in a short period. In addition, by ensuring the necessary confidentiality of the respondent, specialists can obtain a more significant number of truthful and reliable statements that improve the quality of research.

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Chosen Approach

The quantitative approach was chosen, as in the question of personality formation, a high level of reliability and scalability of the experiment is necessary. The accent is made on a phenomenon of the complicated structures of human consciousness, therefore strict standardization and formalization are required. It was essential to create the most general objective picture showing the effect of external and internal factors on personality formation, for which a mass survey was conducted among respondents, and statistical methods processed the results.


Azarbarzin, M., & Maliki, L. S. (2018). Relationship between personality types and the ability of problem-solving among nurse managers. Quarterly Journal of Nursing Management, 7(3), 9-16.

Čukić, I., Mõttus, R., Realo, A., & Allik, J. (2016). Elucidating the links between personality traits and diabetes mellitus: Examining the role of facets, assessment methods, and selected mediators. Personality and Individual Differences, 94(1), 377-382.

Hopwood, C. J., Donnellan, M. B., Blonigen, D. M., Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., & Burt, S. A. (2011). Genetic and environmental influences on personality trait stability and growth during the transition to adulthood: A three-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(3), 545-556.

Maurer, T. J., & Chapman, E. F. (2018). Relationship of proactive personality with life satisfaction during late-career and early retirement. Journal of Career Development, 45(4), 345-360.

Rutkowski, K., Dembińska, E., & Walczewska, J. (2016). Effect of trauma onset on personality traits of politically persecuted victims. BMC Psychiatry, 16(1), 148-156.

Schwaba, T., & Bleidorn, W. (2019). Personality trait development across the transition to retirement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 116(4), 651-665.

Sened, H., Lazarus, G., Gleason, M. E., Rafaeli, E., & Fleeson, W. (2018). The use of intensive longitudinal methods in explanatory personality research. European Journal of Personality, 32(3), 269-285.

Tackett, J. L., Lang, J. W., Markon, K. E., & Herzhoff, K. (2019). A correlated trait, correlated methods model for thin-slice child personality assessment. Psychological Assessment, 31(4), 545-556.

Tarar, M. Y., Sharif, U., & Abbas, M. W. (2018). Identification of different personality traits among teenagers and their effect on behavioral conduct. Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS), 13(1), 10-16.

Tracy-Ventura, N., Dewaele, J. M., Köylü, Z., & McManus, K. (2016). Personality changes after the ‘year abroad’?: A mixed-methods study. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 1(1), 107-127.

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PsychologyWriting. (2022, January 27). External and Internal Factors of Personality Formation. Retrieved from https://psychologywriting.com/external-and-internal-factors-of-personality-formation/


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"External and Internal Factors of Personality Formation." PsychologyWriting, 27 Jan. 2022, psychologywriting.com/external-and-internal-factors-of-personality-formation/.


PsychologyWriting. (2022) 'External and Internal Factors of Personality Formation'. 27 January.


PsychologyWriting. 2022. "External and Internal Factors of Personality Formation." January 27, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/external-and-internal-factors-of-personality-formation/.

1. PsychologyWriting. "External and Internal Factors of Personality Formation." January 27, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/external-and-internal-factors-of-personality-formation/.


PsychologyWriting. "External and Internal Factors of Personality Formation." January 27, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/external-and-internal-factors-of-personality-formation/.