Cognitive Psychology Essay Examples for Free

Cognitive Psychology Essay Examples for Free

Psychology: Learning, Memory, Problem-Solving

Introduction Psychology presents an opportunity for everyone to understand their thought processes and emotions better. This knowledge provides a foundation for more accurate decisions in many aspects of one’s life. Many topics that were discussed in this course have a major significance for me. I chose to discuss learning, memory,...

Fundamental Attribution Error in Psychology

The video directly relates to the material in my textbook on fundamental attribution theory since it illustrates the concept of the theory and how it applies in everyday life. In the social world, people perceive others’ actions based on cause and effect, and specific events are triggered by specific causes...

Aspects of Learning and Memory

Introduction For the classical conditioning test, Option A is selected. The unconditioned stimulus is darkness or absence of light, and the unconditioned response is pupil dilation. The conditioned stimulus is the sound of a bell, and the conditioned response is pupil dilation as well. The idea behind the activity is...

Addressing the Problem of Negative Thinking

Introduction People who tend to dwell on the negative in their lives are often the victims of unfortunate events. There are several fascinating topics to explore in positive psychology, including happiness, attentiveness, flow, and fortitude (Zetsche et al., 2018). Among positive psychology’s well-known topics is the concept of positive thinking....

The Visual Imagery: The Idea of Weapon Focus

Weapon focus remains a popular disruptive mechanism used by criminals to interfere with the eyewitness’s ability to identify them when they perpetrate crime. Goldstein (2015) notes that weapon focus depends on the person holding it. A gun in the hands of a police officer will have minimal interference on eyewitness...

Psychology of Appraisal: Emotions and Decision‐Making

The relation of appraisal tendencies to decision-making has been recognized by many scientists, thus, yielding the need for thorough research. In other words, emotions and an individual’s feelings are able to change one’s judgment, perception, and especially behavior. Overall, a clear understanding of emotional appraisals is crucial to research their...

Sensation and Perception: Psychology of Information Processing

The psychology of information processing, that is, the reasoning behind how the individual interacts with the environment, is mediated by two cognitive processes: sensation and perception. Perception should be understood as the process of holistic reflection of an object and its recording in the individual’s consciousness, initiated by a physical...

The Process of Death, Dying and Grieving

Understanding the grief and dying process is essential in providing the necessary support for overcoming the death of a loved one. According to Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, the five stages that both terminally ill patients and relatives of the deceased follow sequentially constitute denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance (Bregman, 2019)....

Professional Problem-Solving and Decision-Making

A professional problem solver is a person who can correctly identify a problem and solve it in one of several ways: either systematically or intuitively. The problem is an obstacle to achieving a predetermined goal. The problem solver differs from the ordinary persons by making decisions that remove this obstacle...

Learning, Memory and Developmental Aspects

Developmental Aspects of Learning The process of acquiring and stimulating the repetition of the information is explicitly dependent on one’s ability to memorize certain phenomena and items. One’s memory works on the basis of neural connections in the human brain. Essentially, one’s ability to remember certain things relates to the...

Thinking and Intelligence in Psychological Science

In psychological science, based on the doctrine of the activity nature of the human psyche, thinking and intellect occupy an essential place. Recently, thinking has begun to be understood as a particular type of cognitive activity. By introducing the category of activity into the psychology of thinking, the opposition between...

Wallace’s “Our Mind Is an Excellent Servant, but a Terrible Master”

After listening to the speech, it is certain that the human tribe is SELF-CENTRED and, based on when was said, is not aware of it. Apparently, the human brain is able to look at the world through the perspective of the individual that it controls. Thus, everything is SUBJECTIVE, from...

“The Consciousness Illusion”: Main Themes, Arguments, and Influences

The article by Keith Frankish dwells on the phenomenon of human consciousness and provides arguments for the theory, which views consciousness as an illusion. The idea behind this theory relies on the way our brains process information from the outside world to create a representation of the reality within which...

The “Manipulating Our Perception of Time” Documentary

Human beings have a different perception of time that is associated with cognitive functions, such as attention. Time perception is the individual’s subjective experience of the period passed and the duration of events perceived. This helps create a memory of an event that allows the individual to form a belief...

The Danger of “Having a Single Story”

Introduction People are always irritated when perceived as stereotypical representatives of a certain group instead of unique individuals. In her TED Talk, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie described several examples of such treatment and referred to it as “having a single story” about something (TED 00:02:50-00:02:58). In other words, a single story...

Assimilation and Accommodation Concepts Exemplified

Introduction There are processes that children use as they construct their knowledge of the world. Concepts of accommodation and assimilation are two examples of ideas that are important in the learning process development. Therefore, accommodation and assimilation are a response to knowledge acquisition in which the brain either makes the...

The Concept of Psychological Well-Being

Introduction Well-being is considered the sensation of pleasant emotions such as peace and satisfaction in response to implementing one’s capabilities, having some authority over one’s existence, having a sense of meaning, and having healthy connections. It is a stable state that permits people or a community to grow and flourish....

Benefits of Educational Sensory Toys for Children

Name and Aspect of Development Cognitive development describes the capacity for children to reason, process information, and express varied emotions, which is often enabled through board games (Dauch et al., 2018). The toy will serve as a guide to help children learn new cognitive skills as they interact with it....

Dual-Store Model of Memory in Psychology

Storing information is a vital part of the human learning experience that proves human limitation through cognition. A limitation that is fundamental to brain functioning by exploring the capacity and duration of information storage. There are three parts of memory according to the dual-store memory. The sensory register is part...

Importance of Being Skilled in Critical Thinking

Being skilled in critical thinking is assessing your thinking in a systematic manner, examining every aspect of it, evaluating its quality, and then improving it. We must develop logical conclusions based on well-informed assumptions and thoroughly comprehend our own point of view and examine all pertinent points of view. Reasoning...

The Role of Color in Memorizing Operations

Introduction Memory is involved in processing information in the mind, and its performance can be enhanced. Color is among the many variables that give rise to memorizing operations, and so it is a significant visual experience to humans. This makes colored images to be a powerful information conduit to the...

Brain Games: Are They an Anti-Aging Potion?

This article falls under the area of that behavioral intervention can improve the human brain’s cognitive functions. Scientists are of the opinion that brain training games have a direct impact on cognition and the ability to stimulate activities, proving a person’s mental fitness. According to Al-Thaqib (2018), after the experiment,...

Personal Hardship and Critical Thinking Strategies

Introduction Personal hardships might seem overwhelming and impossible to overcome by numerous people. Nowadays, when faced with pandemics, such hardships are seen in a more fatalistic manner. Unfortunately, I suffer from mental issues for the same reason as these individuals: the uncertainty surrounding the pandemics and the panic around it....

Qualities That Humans and Animals Share

Introduction Although many people are used to separating people and animals, there are many stories that prove the fact that they share the same qualities and sometimes use the same approaches in solving various matters. For example, in the text My Life with the Chimpanzees, Dr. Jane Goodall discovered that...

Cognition: Outcomes of a Conversation With a Teenager

Many changes occur during the adolescent phase of a human’s development. The brain changes, and as they interact with society and acquire knowledge, experience, and social demands, these variables produce unprecedented cognitive development. The changes in the thinking of an adolescent can even exceed the more obvious physical change. The...

Sensory Details in Imagination and False Memories

Researchers can conduct specific experiments to test a particular cognitive construction. Thus, Thomas et al. (2003) organized two experiments to determine how repetition and sensory elaboration contribute to the imagination inflation effect. The authors focused on the idea that false memories can emerge due to a specific memory characteristic, including...

Common Sense, Psychological, and Sociological Ways of Thinking

Common sense thinking relies on personal experience and offers the most popular way of explaining a situation. Psychological thinking focuses on evidence to assess and describe people’s behavior. The sociological way of thinking considers the social structure and a human role within it to explain how the environment affects people....

Sense of Smell: Recent Study by Swedish Scientists

I selected a news story that describes a recent study by Swedish scientists from the Karolinska Institutet who investigated the sense of smell. They made an unexpected discovery and refuted the traditional view of the relationship between smell and avoidance behavior. This news story appears attractive because it highlights that...

Operational and Theoretical Discourse Categories

Operational and theoretical are connected discourse categories that describe two basic types of scientific and cognitive activity, as well as the structural components and levels of knowledge that result from these activities. The operational and theoretical typology is founded, first and foremost, on the separation of operational and theoretical research...

Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds

Introduction Most individuals tend to stay rigid to their false beliefs to an extent that it is almost impossible for facts to change their minds. In the article ‘Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds’ by James Clear, the author tries to explain why facts cannot change people’s opinions concerning given...

The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

Review of Cognitive Assessment The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (KABC – II) is used for assessing the cognitive abilities of children from 2 to 12 years old (Lichtenberger & Kaufman, 2010). The Second addition extends the age range and can be used for children from 3...

Troxler’s Fading Optical Illusion and Information Processing

Troxler’s Fading or Troxler’s Effect represents in the form of a blurry image of something. A person looking at his image has not to blink for some seconds to discern a depiction. Troxler’s Effect is a visual phenomenon of human perception people might experience while looking at the picture (Paw,2019)....

The Implicit Association Test: Perception of Other People’s Race and Ethnicity

Introduction The attitude of an individual towards another race or ethnicity is deeply rooted and rarely reported. Implicit Association Test (IAT) assesses perceptions and beliefs that human beings might dislike or are incapable of saying (Harvard University, 2011; Schimmack, 2021, p. 396). Interestingly, IAT helps people be conscious of the...

Cognitive Conflict Theory in Everyday Use

As a two-day experiment in which I had to develop and apply a strategy for cognitive improvement, I chose the strategy of cognitive conflict. This type of thinking is quite often used in teaching the exact sciences and has attracted my attention due to its declared effectiveness. Cognitive conflict implies...

Absolute and Difference Thresholds in Sensation

A reaction arrives at a physiological edge when it can energize tangible receptors and send nerve driving forces to the mind. A message beneath that edge is supposed to be subconscious. The message is prepared; however, we are not intentionally mindful of it. An absolute threshold is the littlest measure...

Categorization of Information and Mnemonic Devices

There are many ways to organize concepts, but one of the most effective methods is by using categories. Categories can be broad or specific; the variation will be dependent on the content to be covered by an individual. The superordinate concept is one of the categories that individuals use to...

“The Journey Toward Literacy Begins in Infancy” by Fahey & Forman

Introduction The article “The Journey Toward Literacy Begins in Infancy: The Reach Out and Read Innovation” was written by Jean Ciborowski Fahey and Judith Forman and published in Childhood Education in 2012. It focuses on the operations of an organization called Reach Out and Read, the main goal of which...

Psychology of Language Perception

A language that is understood by the representatives of different communities regardless of their background, native language and culture can be called universal. To understand language, humans have to identify the sounds or letters used, retrieve the meaning of words combined from these letters or sounds, build the syntactic structure,...

Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder by Boucher & Anns

The question of the study The authors of the “Memory, Learning and Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder” study, Jill Boucher and Sophie Anns, addressed the issue of memory in the context of people with an autism spectrum disorder. More specifically, the central topic is discussed in its relation to the...

Ways to Recover Memories in Long-Term Memory

The short-term memory stores almost all the information received at some point in time on the senses. However, in this form, it is not stored for long: only a few seconds. If people cannot hold information in short-term memory, working memory cannot process such information. As far as long-term memory...

Relation of Sensation and Perception

The human brain can be considered the central organ of the human body that controls everything from physical to emotional activity. Scientists and scholars have studied the connection between the brain and processes that flow in people’s bodies, emotions and reactions. This paper analyzes the interconnection between sensation and perception,...

Aspects of Cognition v. Emotion

Human beings are expected to make decisions daily, mostly based on moral reasoning. Unlike other species, human beings are faced with moral and ethical challenges that demand logical and moral reasoning. People make different decisions in similar circumstances, an issue that has been a debate for many years. The question...

“Is Google Making Us Stupid?” Essay by Nicholas Carr

In “Is Google Making Us Stupid?”, published in an online magazine The Atlantic on July 1, 2008, Nicholas Carr explains the significant effect the Internet has on cognitive patterns and behavior. Providing evidence from his own and others’ experiences, as well as citing conducted studies and historical accounts, Carr builds...

Dealing With the Consequences of a Near Miss

In this essay, I would like to discuss how a person’s mind and body are affected by almost getting in a car accident due to heavy rain while driving home on a busy highway with a lot of traffic. Many drivers had a situation at least once in their lives...

Effective Studying and Memory Enhancing Tips

One can put more study hours, but it does not necessarily imply that they are understanding the study material. Effective study can mean having efficient and brief study sessions that ultimately improve performance and study outcomes. Various ways to study more effectively include setting oneself up for achievement, studying smarter,...

Cognitive Processing and Deep Learning Articles

Background The cognitive approach of the human being primarily comprises sensation, recall, reasoning, and knowledge reproduction. Therefore, cognitive psychology examines how these characteristics of the human mind combine to generate knowledge. This paper aims to summarize two experiments: Understanding emotions in text using deep learning and big data (Chatterjee et...

Social Psychology: Definitions

Fundamental attribution error happens when a person believes that others’ behavior reflects who they are when in reality people’s actions are impacted by many factors. A self-fulfilling prophecy is an expectation that the person believes to be true, which in end helps them to fulfill it. Cognitive dissonance is a...

Overcoming Cognitive Biases

The halo effect is one of the cognitive biases that indicate how an individual’s overall impression influences how others feel and think about them. For instance, a person who is considered ‘nice’ influences other evaluations, such as smartness. A single attribute can persuade people of all other aspects of a...

Motivation Process in Humans

Psychoanalytic Theory This theory was advanced by Sigmund Freud. It states that the human behavior is determined by the sexual and aggressive drives that result from irrational forces, instincts, and the subconscious (Sulloway, 1992). Given these considerations, human behavior can be determined. Therefore, from the factors that determine the behavior...

Human Memory Compared to Computer

Human brains’ cognitive functions and abilities of the neural system are enormous comparing to the majority of other mammals. Myriads of intricate connections of neurons and the plasticity of various brain structures underline humankind’s theoretical and practical achievements. Finally, the emergence of numerous cultures, complex societal arrangements, and tangible achievements...

Theory of Mind and Its Application to Social Work

Background The chosen theory for consideration in this paper is the theory of mind (ToM), originally developed by David Premack and Guyn Woodruff in 1978. ToM has gained traction over the years, especially in the field of psychology. Psychologists rely on this theory to assess an individual’s “degree of capacity...

Role of Perception in Cognitive Psychology

Introduction Cognitive psychology refers to the process of investigating one’s ability to perceive, learn, remember, think, reason, and understand (Lu & Dosher, 2007). Essentially, cognition studies the process of acquiring and applying information or knowledge. Perception forms an integral part of cognition. Perception explores the process of constructing subjective analyses...

Emotions, Motivation, Needs, and Approaches to Personality

Human behavior is driven by emotions experienced after contact with the external and external environment of a person. Scholars have studied emotions and discovered that certain brain areas are more active during experiences of feelings. However, there seems to be no consensus on the exact biochemical constitution or physiological mechanism...

Case Studies of Patients with Anxiety, Mood Disturbances

Case 1 Background Information The patient in the first case is Mr. Jones, and, according to his records, he comes from a loving and supportive full family. He also reports no behavioral deviations until the initial alcohol consumption at the age of 14 years old. The patient has completed high...

Creativity and Influence of Positive and Negative Emotions

Creativity is an essential and valuable skill for every human. This paper argues the combination of positive and negative emotions is most beneficial for creativity. Every type of emotion, positive or negative, has a massive impact on the functioning and activity of the human brain. According to a study by...

Personal Constructs Theory on Human Disturbances

Personal constructs theory by Gorge Kelly states that human emotions are affected by an individual’s mood, actions, behaviors, and feelings. Individuals develop personal constructs on how they view the world. Kelly developed four elements in most human disturbances, such as fear, threats, anxiety, and guilt, which play a significant role...

The Science of Creativity in Modern Society

From the past weeks in the course, many lessons can be drawn from the science of creativity, one of which concerns the environmental conditions that affect the process of creativity. From the creative press, a person can also learn lessons about understanding the kind of creative people, which can help...

Short-Term Memory as a Psychological Concept

Introduction Memory is the system, which enables to encode, store, and retrieve obtained information over time. It is related to brain functioning and also can be considered as the faculty of it. The use of memory is involved in any human beings’ activity, as it is based on the received...

The Implicit Association Test: The Behavior of an Individual

Implicit Association Test is a test that aims to discover and measure the implicit bias of a person taking it. In the time of taking the test, a person needs to react quickly and answer questions that divide concepts into two categories (Harvard’s Project Implicit, 2021). Despite people making their...

Language & Cognitive Processes of Reasoning

The cognitive process of reasoning/knowledge is an essential process related to learning, problem-solving, decision-making, and language. According to Socher et al. (2020), language and reasoning are interrelated processes, with language influencing “analogical reasoning ability” and reasoning “helping to detect new linguistic meanings” (p. 1). The primary functions of reasoning are...

Definition of Cognitive Psychology and the History of Cognitive Psychology

Background Cognitive psychology studies how people receive information about the world, how it is presented to humans, how it is stored in memory and transformed into knowledge, and how it affects our attention and behavior. Cognitive psychology encompasses the full range of psychological processes, and covers all kinds of behavioral...

Cognitive Learning and IQ Tests

Most of the existing IQ tests measure general intelligence level, which is due to the relative ease of their preparation. If I were to create such a tool for psychological measurement, then I would include tasks for working memory, space perception, and arithmetic abilities. IQ tests must be standardized, which...

Perception Checking: McLean’s Definition, Examples

Many conflicts arise from wrong conclusions resulting from how people perceive others in a given situation. A simple statement can result in conflict while the original intent was good. As people interact with each other, there are many ways through which perception can lead to conflict. Sometimes, perceptions are influenced...

Cognitive Biases and Their Impact on Decision-Making

In our daily lives we sometimes have to contend with poor decision-making. As resolution formulation is a cognitive activity, it means that the outcomes from conclusions drawn, may either be rational or irrational (Priest, 2019). If an unreasonable settlement is formed, then probably the assumptions built were not supported by...

Attachment and Societal Factors on the Example of Joe the King

Attachment Psychologists distinguish four attachment patterns: secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant or anxious-ambivalent, and insecure-disorganized. From infancy, children carry these models into the future, which help them seek lifelong approaches to relationships with other people (Fearon & Roisman,2017). A secure pattern implies a relationship with a parent who consistently satisfies the need...

Eyewitness Testimony: Problems and Dilemmas

Introduction The Justice system faces significant controversial dilemmas constantly. It may be impossible always to find the person who committed the crime or to prove the guilt. In some cases, laws may conflict, and interpretation of a concrete situation may fall entirely on the shoulders of the judges. For instance,...

Stress Management (Abnormal Psychology)

Stress has devastating effects on one’s life. Coping with stress demands one to have an idea of what gives rise to the stressed condition, a case that will enable him/her adopt appropriate steps to deal with it pragmatically. Stress can be caused by external and internal factors, which are both...

Social Psychology Theories in “The Experiment”

Introduction Human relationships in society are predetermined by various factors, including their mental health, education level, personal experience, and attitudes. Social psychology aims at studying and analyzing these interactions to promote well-being and stability. However, each theory or hypothesis in this field is based on specific experiments and observations that...

Negative Effects of Childhood Trauma on Cognitive Functioning in Adults

Introduction The individuality of each person is shaped during childhood, and all major events people face when they are young ultimately have an effect on their future life. Freud believed that human behavior is governed by unconscious instincts and that childhood experiences constitute the primary factor in explaining adult personalities...

The Role of the Belief System in Projecting of the Future

The system of beliefs and the receiver’s perceptions of information are necessary for the effective management of information. A sensory system is responsible for transferring the data collected by the senses to the brain. The signals like sounds, sights, and smells received by the senses, also called action potentials, are...

When the Body Says No by Dr. Gabor Mate: The Cost of Hidden Stress

When the Body Says No is a book written by Dr. Gabor Mate. It explores the link between the mind and the body and the role of stress in respect to the onset of many illnesses such as diabetes, arthritis, cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis among others. It shows the...

How To Achieve Well-being and Enjoyment in Life

For many people, the primary purpose of life apart from health, family, and good work is to be happy. We have been looking for ways to achieve well-being in our lives for centuries. Is there a general method to become satisfied and to make our family and close friends feel...

Sensation and Perception, Attention and Awareness

Sensation and Perception Example 1 Sensation – utilizing one’s visual sensors to distinguish a moving tail and a furred face of an animal. Perception – utilizing the brain’s capability to interpret the input information to spot a joyful dog. Example 2 Sensation – utilizing one’s hearing sensors to detect a...

Depression Associated with Cognitive Dysfunction

Airaksinen, E., Wahlin, A., Forsell, Y., & Larsson, M. (2007). Low episodic memory performance as a premorbid marker of depression: Evidence from a 3-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 115(6), 458–465. The article aims to explore low episodic memory scores as an important risk prerequisite for depressive disorders. The appropriate utilization...

Flashbulb Memories: Theories and Examples

Usually, people are confident in the inviolability of their memories and are ready to vouch for the accuracy of the details, especially when it is a significant event for them. Meanwhile, false memories are the most common thing; they inevitably accumulate in the memory of every person. Most people have...

The Impacts of Stress on Human Memory

Abstract Several factors, including non-cognitive aspects, influence the optimal performance of human memory. Anxiety and stress contribute to the poor functioning of an individual’s memory. In all these situations, the brain plays a meaningful role in comprehending the effects of stress on memory. The brain can receive and send signals...

What Justifies My Existence?

For a long time, philosophers, scientists, thinkers, and ordinary people have tried to justify their existence. In this way, they tried to answer global existential questions, including the reasons for existence, the purpose in life, and so on. Each person has their own goals in life, however, life itself is...

Cognitive Processes and Theoretical Models

Introduction A theoretical model is a theoretical and schematic representation of reality using idealized abstractions, objects. The process of cognition is aimed at acquiring knowledge about the phenomena and laws of the objective world. Cognition can be of various forms, has two levels, and the direct philosophical and methodological discipline...

Actor-Observer Cognitive Bias

Humans justify their weaknesses or evil actions by blaming external forces beyond their control while embracing their strengths without recognizing the external support they get. This tendency to attribute weak points to third parties and take credit for successes emanates from actor-observer cognitive bias. In the same vein, humans want...

Emotions and Feelings in Antonio Damasio’s “Looking for Spinoza”

Scientists and philosophers have spent considerable effort in researching human emotions and feelings. Knowledge about the difference between these terms is scanty, and Damasio dedicates significant time to explore this elusive subject in his book. Looking for Spinoza elucidates what feelings are and why human beings experience them. In the...

Problem-Solving in Cognitive Psychology

Introduction Cognitive skills that a person acquires throughout one’s life shape a personal background and allow interacting with other people through the experience of communication to overcome various barriers. Problem-solving is valuable attainment, and cognitive psychology is the industry that studies this phenomenon from the perspective of drivers and incentives...

Psychology of Learning and Memory

Cognitive psychology is often resorting to the notion of mood-congruent memory because the latter relates to memory retrieval and the process of encoding information. To access information, the brain matches the context of encoding to the context of retrieval and allows the person to gain access to the required information...

Self-Psychology in Modern Psychoanalytic Theory

In the present day, self-psychology may be regarded as an influential movement that has substantially grown in recent decades. This modern psychoanalytic theory that is currently developing as a basis for psychoanalytic treatment focuses on understanding individuals through their subjective experience and emphasizes people’s external relationships and their influence on...

“Switching Between Lift and Use Grasp Actions”: The Switch Costs

Background The article under review investigates the concept of grasp actions. Bub et al. (2018) state that they are directed by the stored manipulation knowledge of an individual and vary depending on the objective to either lift or use an object. It is assumed that lift actions are produced faster...

Social and Emotional Intelligence

Social and emotional intelligence are qualities that are valued in a leader equally to experience and professional skills. Together, these types of intelligence enable the leader to motivate and coordinate teamwork and gain high performance from team members. Moreover, people can develop these qualities to become successful managers. Hence, this...

Cognitive Psychology and Learning: The Stroop Test

The concept of automaticity implies thoughts followed by actions that do not require monitoring or conscious guidance. Automaticity allows us to perform such tasks, as walking, taking a shower, driving to work without having to think about these things. Components of automaticity are to some extent integrated into the majority...

Perception and Critical Thinking

Introduction Perception is a complex process of analyzing the information received from senses, and its accurateness influences the person’s thinking abilities. Thus, critical thinking is a specific type of thinking when an individual uses logics and reasoning in order to make certain conclusions related to the world objects or situations....

Anxiety Disorders: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Introduction Anxiety disorder is a clinical issue that needs psychiatric care and normally affects children and teenagers and has a prevalence rate of 3-24% (Cartwright, McNicol & Doubleday, cited in Alan & Kazdin, 2010, p. 61). Normally, anxiety disorders are chronic and recurrent and their only remedy is seeking medical...

Grieving Process, Stages, and Wolterstorff’s Reflections

Introduction According to Kübler-Ross & Kessler (2005), the grieving process takes five stages to be complete. These stages are denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. The person grieving undergoes different experiences in each of the stages, but eventually sees the need to accept the reality. During the denial...

Alfred Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory

The Self-Efficacy Theory developed by an American social psychologist Alfred Bandura is a pivotal contribution to the theoretical framework of educational psychology. The theory is defined as “peoples’ beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives” (Bandura, 1994). These...

Why Is the Self Important in Understanding and Treating Social Phobia?

The University of Southampton’s Stopa (2009) puts forward three constructs about the self in managing social phobia. This is an essay that responds to inadequate explanations in cognitive psychology about the role of the self in the dynamics of social phobia. It may seem paradoxical to focus on the construction...

Thinking. “Blink” Book by Malcolm Gladwell

Introduction The main point of Malcolm Gladwell’s book is the importance of “thin slicing” or making decisions without an in-depth assessment. The author promotes the idea that analysis can cause unnecessary “paralysis,” which hinders efficiency. Gladwell points out the critical importance of intuitive thinking and a quick decision-making process, which...

“A Thing of Beauty is a Joy Forever?” Article Review

The article under review is psychological research about how physical attractiveness affects women and men. It measures marital success and social life based on physical attractiveness. Face, height, and body mass index measure attractiveness in people. According to Jæger, this topic is important to psychologists because the life course of...

How We Perceive Pain: Theories and Experiences

The problem of perception of pain is one of the most complex and acute problems of medicine. Pain is commonly believed to be a feeling of physical discomfort or suffering that a human understands and acknowledges. This sensation is triggered by irritations, which can be both external and internal. While...

Child Development Theories

Outline Melissa is a four year old child who swallowed two of her mother’s ‘green lollies’, identified as sleeping tablets (Temazepam). The mother forgot to strap her daughter into her booster seat and she has hit her head on the back of the seat. Melissa is drowsy, disorientated and has...

Discrimination and Prejudice Behavior towards the Minorities

Discrimination is an ongoing issue that has been causing problems to millions of people for centuries. With time, discrimination and prejudice behavior does not vanish; thus, changes its forms and manifestations. The video “A Class Divided” is a prominent example of how easy it is to impose discriminative behavior inside...

The Phenomenon of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

The dramatic increase in the number of victims of emergencies, accidents, wrongful acts, and serious conflicts has led to a rise in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the population. The psychological consequences of the trauma experience are of concern to the global psychological community. Recent years of...

A Critic of Locke’s on Knowledge of Sense Data

Locke believed that sensual experiences reveal knowledge of the external world. In defense of this stance, the philosopher distinguishes physical objects from human sense which generates ideas. His approach assumes that “the mind does not come into the worlds already inscribed with ideas or knowledge” (Vaughn 295). The only role...

Sensation and Perception Influence on Interpretation of Life

Introduction Psychology takes an avid interest in human cognition that studies an individual’s psychological functions from the standpoint of information processing. Sensation and perception are two concepts that are useful for understanding human cognition. They explain a variety of phenomena such as the diversity of interpretations based on individuals’ perceptions....