Cognitive Psychology Essay Examples for Free

Cognitive Psychology Essay Examples for Free

Sense of Smell: Recent Study by Swedish Scientists

I selected a news story that describes a recent study by Swedish scientists from the Karolinska Institutet who investigated the sense of smell. They made an unexpected discovery and refuted the traditional view of the relationship between smell and avoidance behavior. This news story appears attractive because it highlights that...

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Operational and Theoretical Discourse Categories

Operational and theoretical are connected discourse categories that describe two basic types of scientific and cognitive activity, as well as the structural components and levels of knowledge that result from these activities. The operational and theoretical typology is founded, first and foremost, on the separation of operational and theoretical research...

Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds

Introduction Most individuals tend to stay rigid to their false beliefs to an extent that it is almost impossible for facts to change their minds. In the article ‘Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds’ by James Clear, the author tries to explain why facts cannot change people’s opinions concerning given...

The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

Review of Cognitive Assessment The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (KABC – II) is used for assessing the cognitive abilities of children from 2 to 12 years old (Lichtenberger & Kaufman, 2010). The Second addition extends the age range and can be used for children from 3...

Troxler’s Fading Optical Illusion and Information Processing

Troxler’s Fading or Troxler’s Effect represents in the form of a blurry image of something. A person looking at his image has not to blink for some seconds to discern a depiction. Troxler’s Effect is a visual phenomenon of human perception people might experience while looking at the picture (Paw,2019)....

The Implicit Association Test: Perception of Other People’s Race and Ethnicity

Introduction The attitude of an individual towards another race or ethnicity is deeply rooted and rarely reported. Implicit Association Test (IAT) assesses perceptions and beliefs that human beings might dislike or are incapable of saying (Harvard University, 2011; Schimmack, 2021, p. 396). Interestingly, IAT helps people be conscious of the...

Cognitive Conflict Theory in Everyday Use

As a two-day experiment in which I had to develop and apply a strategy for cognitive improvement, I chose the strategy of cognitive conflict. This type of thinking is quite often used in teaching the exact sciences and has attracted my attention due to its declared effectiveness. Cognitive conflict implies...

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Absolute and Difference Thresholds in Sensation

A reaction arrives at a physiological edge when it can energize tangible receptors and send nerve driving forces to the mind. A message beneath that edge is supposed to be subconscious. The message is prepared; however, we are not intentionally mindful of it. An absolute threshold is the littlest measure...

Categorization of Information and Mnemonic Devices

There are many ways to organize concepts, but one of the most effective methods is by using categories. Categories can be broad or specific; the variation will be dependent on the content to be covered by an individual. The superordinate concept is one of the categories that individuals use to...

“The Journey Toward Literacy Begins in Infancy” by Fahey & Forman

Introduction The article “The Journey Toward Literacy Begins in Infancy: The Reach Out and Read Innovation” was written by Jean Ciborowski Fahey and Judith Forman and published in Childhood Education in 2012. It focuses on the operations of an organization called Reach Out and Read, the main goal of which...

Psychology of Language Perception

A language that is understood by the representatives of different communities regardless of their background, native language and culture can be called universal. To understand language, humans have to identify the sounds or letters used, retrieve the meaning of words combined from these letters or sounds, build the syntactic structure,...

Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder by Boucher & Anns

The question of the study The authors of the “Memory, Learning and Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder” study, Jill Boucher and Sophie Anns, addressed the issue of memory in the context of people with an autism spectrum disorder. More specifically, the central topic is discussed in its relation to the...

Ways to Recover Memories in Long-Term Memory

The short-term memory stores almost all the information received at some point in time on the senses. However, in this form, it is not stored for long: only a few seconds. If people cannot hold information in short-term memory, working memory cannot process such information. As far as long-term memory...

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Relation of Sensation and Perception

The human brain can be considered the central organ of the human body that controls everything from physical to emotional activity. Scientists and scholars have studied the connection between the brain and processes that flow in people’s bodies, emotions and reactions. This paper analyzes the interconnection between sensation and perception,...

Aspects of Cognition v. Emotion

Human beings are expected to make decisions daily, mostly based on moral reasoning. Unlike other species, human beings are faced with moral and ethical challenges that demand logical and moral reasoning. People make different decisions in similar circumstances, an issue that has been a debate for many years. The question...

“Is Google Making Us Stupid?” Essay by Nicholas Carr

In “Is Google Making Us Stupid?”, published in an online magazine The Atlantic on July 1, 2008, Nicholas Carr explains the significant effect the Internet has on cognitive patterns and behavior. Providing evidence from his own and others’ experiences, as well as citing conducted studies and historical accounts, Carr builds...

Dealing With the Consequences of a Near Miss

In this essay, I would like to discuss how a person’s mind and body are affected by almost getting in a car accident due to heavy rain while driving home on a busy highway with a lot of traffic. Many drivers had a situation at least once in their lives...

Effective Studying and Memory Enhancing Tips

One can put more study hours, but it does not necessarily imply that they are understanding the study material. Effective study can mean having efficient and brief study sessions that ultimately improve performance and study outcomes. Various ways to study more effectively include setting oneself up for achievement, studying smarter,...

Cognitive Processing and Deep Learning Articles

Background The cognitive approach of the human being primarily comprises sensation, recall, reasoning, and knowledge reproduction. Therefore, cognitive psychology examines how these characteristics of the human mind combine to generate knowledge. This paper aims to summarize two experiments: Understanding emotions in text using deep learning and big data (Chatterjee et...

Social Psychology: Definitions

Fundamental attribution error happens when a person believes that others’ behavior reflects who they are when in reality people’s actions are impacted by many factors. A self-fulfilling prophecy is an expectation that the person believes to be true, which in end helps them to fulfill it. Cognitive dissonance is a...

Overcoming Cognitive Biases

The halo effect is one of the cognitive biases that indicate how an individual’s overall impression influences how others feel and think about them. For instance, a person who is considered ‘nice’ influences other evaluations, such as smartness. A single attribute can persuade people of all other aspects of a...

Motivation Process in Humans

Psychoanalytic Theory This theory was advanced by Sigmund Freud. It states that the human behavior is determined by the sexual and aggressive drives that result from irrational forces, instincts, and the subconscious (Sulloway, 1992). Given these considerations, human behavior can be determined. Therefore, from the factors that determine the behavior...

Human Memory Compared to Computer

Human brains’ cognitive functions and abilities of the neural system are enormous comparing to the majority of other mammals. Myriads of intricate connections of neurons and the plasticity of various brain structures underline humankind’s theoretical and practical achievements. Finally, the emergence of numerous cultures, complex societal arrangements, and tangible achievements...

Theory of Mind and Its Application to Social Work

Background The chosen theory for consideration in this paper is the theory of mind (ToM), originally developed by David Premack and Guyn Woodruff in 1978. ToM has gained traction over the years, especially in the field of psychology. Psychologists rely on this theory to assess an individual’s “degree of capacity...

Role of Perception in Cognitive Psychology

Introduction Cognitive psychology refers to the process of investigating one’s ability to perceive, learn, remember, think, reason, and understand (Lu & Dosher, 2007). Essentially, cognition studies the process of acquiring and applying information or knowledge. Perception forms an integral part of cognition. Perception explores the process of constructing subjective analyses...

Emotions, Motivation, Needs, and Approaches to Personality

Human behavior is driven by emotions experienced after contact with the external and external environment of a person. Scholars have studied emotions and discovered that certain brain areas are more active during experiences of feelings. However, there seems to be no consensus on the exact biochemical constitution or physiological mechanism...

Case Studies of Patients with Anxiety, Mood Disturbances

Case 1 Background Information The patient in the first case is Mr. Jones, and, according to his records, he comes from a loving and supportive full family. He also reports no behavioral deviations until the initial alcohol consumption at the age of 14 years old. The patient has completed high...

Creativity and Influence of Positive and Negative Emotions

Creativity is an essential and valuable skill for every human. This paper argues the combination of positive and negative emotions is most beneficial for creativity. Every type of emotion, positive or negative, has a massive impact on the functioning and activity of the human brain. According to a study by...

Personal Constructs Theory on Human Disturbances

Personal constructs theory by Gorge Kelly states that human emotions are affected by an individual’s mood, actions, behaviors, and feelings. Individuals develop personal constructs on how they view the world. Kelly developed four elements in most human disturbances, such as fear, threats, anxiety, and guilt, which play a significant role...

The Science of Creativity in Modern Society

From the past weeks in the course, many lessons can be drawn from the science of creativity, one of which concerns the environmental conditions that affect the process of creativity. From the creative press, a person can also learn lessons about understanding the kind of creative people, which can help...

Short-Term Memory as a Psychological Concept

Introduction Memory is the system, which enables to encode, store, and retrieve obtained information over time. It is related to brain functioning and also can be considered as the faculty of it. The use of memory is involved in any human beings’ activity, as it is based on the received...

The Implicit Association Test: The Behavior of an Individual

Implicit Association Test is a test that aims to discover and measure the implicit bias of a person taking it. In the time of taking the test, a person needs to react quickly and answer questions that divide concepts into two categories (Harvard’s Project Implicit, 2021). Despite people making their...

Language & Cognitive Processes of Reasoning

The cognitive process of reasoning/knowledge is an essential process related to learning, problem-solving, decision-making, and language. According to Socher et al. (2020), language and reasoning are interrelated processes, with language influencing “analogical reasoning ability” and reasoning “helping to detect new linguistic meanings” (p. 1). The primary functions of reasoning are...

Definition of Cognitive Psychology and the History of Cognitive Psychology

Background Cognitive psychology studies how people receive information about the world, how it is presented to humans, how it is stored in memory and transformed into knowledge, and how it affects our attention and behavior. Cognitive psychology encompasses the full range of psychological processes, and covers all kinds of behavioral...

Cognitive Learning and IQ Tests

Most of the existing IQ tests measure general intelligence level, which is due to the relative ease of their preparation. If I were to create such a tool for psychological measurement, then I would include tasks for working memory, space perception, and arithmetic abilities. IQ tests must be standardized, which...

Perception Checking: McLean’s Definition, Examples

Many conflicts arise from wrong conclusions resulting from how people perceive others in a given situation. A simple statement can result in conflict while the original intent was good. As people interact with each other, there are many ways through which perception can lead to conflict. Sometimes, perceptions are influenced...

Cognitive Biases and Their Impact on Decision-Making

In our daily lives we sometimes have to contend with poor decision-making. As resolution formulation is a cognitive activity, it means that the outcomes from conclusions drawn, may either be rational or irrational (Priest, 2019). If an unreasonable settlement is formed, then probably the assumptions built were not supported by...

Attachment and Societal Factors on the Example of Joe the King

Attachment Psychologists distinguish four attachment patterns: secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant or anxious-ambivalent, and insecure-disorganized. From infancy, children carry these models into the future, which help them seek lifelong approaches to relationships with other people (Fearon & Roisman,2017). A secure pattern implies a relationship with a parent who consistently satisfies the need...

Eyewitness Testimony: Problems and Dilemmas

Introduction The Justice system faces significant controversial dilemmas constantly. It may be impossible always to find the person who committed the crime or to prove the guilt. In some cases, laws may conflict, and interpretation of a concrete situation may fall entirely on the shoulders of the judges. For instance,...

Stress Management (Abnormal Psychology)

Stress has devastating effects on one’s life. Coping with stress demands one to have an idea of what gives rise to the stressed condition, a case that will enable him/her adopt appropriate steps to deal with it pragmatically. Stress can be caused by external and internal factors, which are both...

Social Psychology Theories in “The Experiment”

Introduction Human relationships in society are predetermined by various factors, including their mental health, education level, personal experience, and attitudes. Social psychology aims at studying and analyzing these interactions to promote well-being and stability. However, each theory or hypothesis in this field is based on specific experiments and observations that...

Negative Effects of Childhood Trauma on Cognitive Functioning in Adults

Introduction The individuality of each person is shaped during childhood, and all major events people face when they are young ultimately have an effect on their future life. Freud believed that human behavior is governed by unconscious instincts and that childhood experiences constitute the primary factor in explaining adult personalities...

The Role of the Belief System in Projecting of the Future

The system of beliefs and the receiver’s perceptions of information are necessary for the effective management of information. A sensory system is responsible for transferring the data collected by the senses to the brain. The signals like sounds, sights, and smells received by the senses, also called action potentials, are...

When the Body Says No by Dr. Gabor Mate: The Cost of Hidden Stress

When the Body Says No is a book written by Dr. Gabor Mate. It explores the link between the mind and the body and the role of stress in respect to the onset of many illnesses such as diabetes, arthritis, cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis among others. It shows the...

How To Achieve Well-being and Enjoyment in Life

For many people, the primary purpose of life apart from health, family, and good work is to be happy. We have been looking for ways to achieve well-being in our lives for centuries. Is there a general method to become satisfied and to make our family and close friends feel...

Sensation and Perception, Attention and Awareness

Sensation and Perception Example 1 Sensation – utilizing one’s visual sensors to distinguish a moving tail and a furred face of an animal. Perception – utilizing the brain’s capability to interpret the input information to spot a joyful dog. Example 2 Sensation – utilizing one’s hearing sensors to detect a...

Depression Associated with Cognitive Dysfunction

Airaksinen, E., Wahlin, A., Forsell, Y., & Larsson, M. (2007). Low episodic memory performance as a premorbid marker of depression: Evidence from a 3-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 115(6), 458–465. The article aims to explore low episodic memory scores as an important risk prerequisite for depressive disorders. The appropriate utilization...

Flashbulb Memories: Theories and Examples

Usually, people are confident in the inviolability of their memories and are ready to vouch for the accuracy of the details, especially when it is a significant event for them. Meanwhile, false memories are the most common thing; they inevitably accumulate in the memory of every person. Most people have...

The Impacts of Stress on Human Memory

Abstract Several factors, including non-cognitive aspects, influence the optimal performance of human memory. Anxiety and stress contribute to the poor functioning of an individual’s memory. In all these situations, the brain plays a meaningful role in comprehending the effects of stress on memory. The brain can receive and send signals...

What Justifies My Existence?

For a long time, philosophers, scientists, thinkers, and ordinary people have tried to justify their existence. In this way, they tried to answer global existential questions, including the reasons for existence, the purpose in life, and so on. Each person has their own goals in life, however, life itself is...

Cognitive Processes and Theoretical Models

Introduction A theoretical model is a theoretical and schematic representation of reality using idealized abstractions, objects. The process of cognition is aimed at acquiring knowledge about the phenomena and laws of the objective world. Cognition can be of various forms, has two levels, and the direct philosophical and methodological discipline...

Actor-Observer Cognitive Bias

Humans justify their weaknesses or evil actions by blaming external forces beyond their control while embracing their strengths without recognizing the external support they get. This tendency to attribute weak points to third parties and take credit for successes emanates from actor-observer cognitive bias. In the same vein, humans want...

Emotions and Feelings in Antonio Damasio’s “Looking for Spinoza”

Scientists and philosophers have spent considerable effort in researching human emotions and feelings. Knowledge about the difference between these terms is scanty, and Damasio dedicates significant time to explore this elusive subject in his book. Looking for Spinoza elucidates what feelings are and why human beings experience them. In the...

Problem-Solving in Cognitive Psychology

Introduction Cognitive skills that a person acquires throughout one’s life shape a personal background and allow interacting with other people through the experience of communication to overcome various barriers. Problem-solving is valuable attainment, and cognitive psychology is the industry that studies this phenomenon from the perspective of drivers and incentives...

Psychology of Learning and Memory

Cognitive psychology is often resorting to the notion of mood-congruent memory because the latter relates to memory retrieval and the process of encoding information. To access information, the brain matches the context of encoding to the context of retrieval and allows the person to gain access to the required information...

Self-Psychology in Modern Psychoanalytic Theory

In the present day, self-psychology may be regarded as an influential movement that has substantially grown in recent decades. This modern psychoanalytic theory that is currently developing as a basis for psychoanalytic treatment focuses on understanding individuals through their subjective experience and emphasizes people’s external relationships and their influence on...

“Switching Between Lift and Use Grasp Actions”: The Switch Costs

Background The article under review investigates the concept of grasp actions. Bub et al. (2018) state that they are directed by the stored manipulation knowledge of an individual and vary depending on the objective to either lift or use an object. It is assumed that lift actions are produced faster...

Social and Emotional Intelligence

Social and emotional intelligence are qualities that are valued in a leader equally to experience and professional skills. Together, these types of intelligence enable the leader to motivate and coordinate teamwork and gain high performance from team members. Moreover, people can develop these qualities to become successful managers. Hence, this...

Cognitive Psychology and Learning: The Stroop Test

The concept of automaticity implies thoughts followed by actions that do not require monitoring or conscious guidance. Automaticity allows us to perform such tasks, as walking, taking a shower, driving to work without having to think about these things. Components of automaticity are to some extent integrated into the majority...

Perception and Critical Thinking

Introduction Perception is a complex process of analyzing the information received from senses, and its accurateness influences the person’s thinking abilities. Thus, critical thinking is a specific type of thinking when an individual uses logics and reasoning in order to make certain conclusions related to the world objects or situations....

Anxiety Disorders: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Introduction Anxiety disorder is a clinical issue that needs psychiatric care and normally affects children and teenagers and has a prevalence rate of 3-24% (Cartwright, McNicol & Doubleday, cited in Alan & Kazdin, 2010, p. 61). Normally, anxiety disorders are chronic and recurrent and their only remedy is seeking medical...

Grieving Process, Stages, and Wolterstorff’s Reflections

Introduction According to Kübler-Ross & Kessler (2005), the grieving process takes five stages to be complete. These stages are denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. The person grieving undergoes different experiences in each of the stages, but eventually sees the need to accept the reality. During the denial...

Alfred Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory

The Self-Efficacy Theory developed by an American social psychologist Alfred Bandura is a pivotal contribution to the theoretical framework of educational psychology. The theory is defined as “peoples’ beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives” (Bandura, 1994). These...

Why Is the Self Important in Understanding and Treating Social Phobia?

The University of Southampton’s Stopa (2009) puts forward three constructs about the self in managing social phobia. This is an essay that responds to inadequate explanations in cognitive psychology about the role of the self in the dynamics of social phobia. It may seem paradoxical to focus on the construction...

Thinking. “Blink” Book by Malcolm Gladwell

Introduction The main point of Malcolm Gladwell’s book is the importance of “thin slicing” or making decisions without an in-depth assessment. The author promotes the idea that analysis can cause unnecessary “paralysis,” which hinders efficiency. Gladwell points out the critical importance of intuitive thinking and a quick decision-making process, which...

“A Thing of Beauty is a Joy Forever?” Article Review

The article under review is psychological research about how physical attractiveness affects women and men. It measures marital success and social life based on physical attractiveness. Face, height, and body mass index measure attractiveness in people. According to Jæger, this topic is important to psychologists because the life course of...

How We Perceive Pain: Theories and Experiences

The problem of perception of pain is one of the most complex and acute problems of medicine. Pain is commonly believed to be a feeling of physical discomfort or suffering that a human understands and acknowledges. This sensation is triggered by irritations, which can be both external and internal. While...

Child Development Theories

Outline Melissa is a four year old child who swallowed two of her mother’s ‘green lollies’, identified as sleeping tablets (Temazepam). The mother forgot to strap her daughter into her booster seat and she has hit her head on the back of the seat. Melissa is drowsy, disorientated and has...

Discrimination and Prejudice Behavior towards the Minorities

Discrimination is an ongoing issue that has been causing problems to millions of people for centuries. With time, discrimination and prejudice behavior does not vanish; thus, changes its forms and manifestations. The video “A Class Divided” is a prominent example of how easy it is to impose discriminative behavior inside...

The Phenomenon of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

The dramatic increase in the number of victims of emergencies, accidents, wrongful acts, and serious conflicts has led to a rise in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the population. The psychological consequences of the trauma experience are of concern to the global psychological community. Recent years of...

A Critic of Locke’s on Knowledge of Sense Data

Locke believed that sensual experiences reveal knowledge of the external world. In defense of this stance, the philosopher distinguishes physical objects from human sense which generates ideas. His approach assumes that “the mind does not come into the worlds already inscribed with ideas or knowledge” (Vaughn 295). The only role...

Sensation and Perception Influence on Interpretation of Life

Introduction Psychology takes an avid interest in human cognition that studies an individual’s psychological functions from the standpoint of information processing. Sensation and perception are two concepts that are useful for understanding human cognition. They explain a variety of phenomena such as the diversity of interpretations based on individuals’ perceptions....

Neuroimaging in the History of Social Sciences

The history of the social sciences’ most significant transformation is connected to globalization and the increased connectivity of the global community. The most interesting event is the development of advanced technology, such as neuroimaging, that allows scientists to study the subjects’ brains. This event is exciting and essential for the...

Groupthink: Definition, Examples, and Outcomes

Introduction The concepts of conformism have typically been frowned upon in western society for the past several decades, whereas individuality and self-expression have received praise. Overall, the current social perception of unwillingness to develop individual characteristics has been presented mostly in a negative light as the focus on complacency and...

Theory of Mind and Inhibitory Control in Older Age

Theory of mind (TOM) is an essential psychological process that helps humans function in society. Zhou et al. (2019) conducted an experimental study where they investigated how TOM, inhibitory control, and healthy aging were related. In the experiment, six groups of participants of six age groups completed tasks for cognitive...

Memory: Properties and Manipulation Possibilities

The research on the analysis of brain activity to identify the properties of memory and the possibilities of manipulating it is a significant breakthrough in neurobiology. In their speech, Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu say that the hippocampus is a part of the brain that contains cells responsible for memories...

Cognitive Dissonance and Behavioral Finance

Introduction The cognitive dissonance theory explains the phenomenon where a person experiences tension and anxiety when that person has two opposing thoughts in mind. Dissonance is directly proportional to the importance of a certain ideology, intensity of opposing views and absence of rational decision making. When a person believes something...

Gestalt Theoty of the Impression Formation

The first impression we make of a person can be significant because it has a strong influence on behavior towards someone. Psychologist Solomon Asch “proposed two contrasting models of impression formation: the “elementaristic” model and a gestalt view” (Hampson, 2018, 120). In the last century, social psychology was heavily influenced...

Ted Talk – A Monkey That Controls a Robot With Its Thoughts

It was interesting for me to watch this TED Talk since it gave a number of insights and provided information about a unique experiment that can change the way people see the world. Even though it was a little bit challenging to understand the ideas covered because of their complexity...

Cognitive Psychology Role in People’s Life

Introduction Cognitive psychology plays a vital role in people’s everyday life. It is clear that people’s mental processes occur based on thorough thinking or decision-making, and cognitive functions are behind these processes. Nowadays, psychologists and researchers pay special attention to the language processing that conditions why people choose this or...

Psychological Perspectives in Understanding the Mind, Body Problem

Introduction The biological functioning of the mind has attracted substantial research interest in psychology and physiology intended to understand mental processes among humans. The mind/body problem entails the brain’s nature and how it relates to the human body, including the nervous system. Prominent theorists have put forth many theories explaining...

The Retrieval-Based Learning and Using Emotions for Enhancing Memory

Memory and learning are closely related concepts. While learning is a process of acquiring skills and specific sets of knowledge, memory is an essential part of learning as it lets individuals remember the comprehended material. Therefore, it is clear that learning depends on the ability to memorize particular things and...

Developing a Professional Presence in Business

One of the essential points in building a professional brand and professional presence is the first impression. Usually, being crucial, it is created in several minutes of an acquaintance. For instance, in the job interview, the first question might be “tell me about yourself,” which immediately forms the perception of...

Lack of Sleep at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

Introduction Sleep quality and quantity are essential to every individual, especially university students trying to earn their degrees and professionally establish themselves. It is recommended that adults get 6 to 8 hours of sleep to promote their physical, mental, and psychological wellbeing. For the student-age population, the reality is that...

Determinants of Intelligence and Creativity

Researchers have demonstrated that both the environment and heredity have a collaborative influence on intelligence. Several studies have shown that there is a reaction Range to the intelligence Quotient (IQ), which implies that there are limits on IQ by genetic transmission. Heredity has a lower and upper limit on the...

Concepts of Awareness, Self-Esteem, and Perception

Introduction Awareness is the ability of a person to view oneself as a unique soul different from the surrounding. Self-awareness enables one to reflect on their thoughts, behaviors, and feelings in regards to temperaments. The overall knowledge or idea somebody has about themselves is referred to as self-concept, basically. Self-esteem...

Positive Reinforcement Concepts Discussion

Introduction The analysis of specific behavioral paradigms can help identify how they affect the worldview, what drivers stimulate them, and how strong their manifestations are. As the objects of discussion, four concepts will be involved: a) positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment; b) social change in life-span development; c) motivation...

Consequentialist and Opposite Moral Reasoning

Consequentialists and non-consequentialist are the opposite moral reasoning types that include specific theories and determine the individual’s perception of principles. Consequentialism evaluates the outcomes, and if the consequent advantages are more significant than drawbacks, an action is considered profound (Gustafson 2020). Consequentialist theories are utilitarianism, which prioritizes decision-making approaches that...

George Kelly’s Personal Constructs: Threat, Fear, Anxiety, and Guilt

The different ways people are engaged in life events affect the decisions making process and the outcomes of such situations. According to George Kelly, the way people perceive reality is strongly attached to their personal constructs; that is, how people analyze, think, or interpret certain events or life situations (Chiari,...

Locus of Control in the Field of Personality Psychology

Introduction Locus of control is an essential concept which focuses on the individuals’ belief in regards to their control over experiences or situations. They primarily affect people’s lives, and thus, a person might be convinced that he or she is in full control of any life-altering influences. There is a...

Psychological Forces at Play in Courtrooms

Introduction The way people make sense of the surrounding world is a generally vast issue related to cognitive psychology. Humans have the ability to identify a certain amount of information received from the world they inhabit and, thus, make it substantial. Compared to other animals, human senses are relatively limited,...

Postpartum Depression. Consequences

These days more and more women approach the decision to have a baby very consciously, choosing the time when they are physically and emotionally prepared. However, there are several challenges that may present themselves after the childbirth with some of them having long-term implications. One of such problems is postpartum...

Memory, Dementia and Social Cognition

Cognitive changes in the aging brain include decreased capacity in different memory functions. Scientists believe that episodic memory associated with information related to reality is more prone to deterioration in older adults. In contrast, semantic memory capacity, such as abstract memorization of words and concepts, decreases less. This paper aims...

Cognitive Deficits in Marijuana Users

Introduction About 14.6 million people in the US use marijuana, 36% of which have the related disorders that require appropriate interventions. Various approaches, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, have been adapted for marijuana patients. However, the assumption that patients possess adequate cognitive functioning makes it difficult for patients with less cognitive...

Mentally Ill Offenders With Suicide Tendency

It has been affirmed that the number of mentally ill people imprisoned is about twenty-five million (Bureau of Justice Statistics). Research also confirms that people who are mentally ill have a greater likelihood of being imprisoned for violent activities (Ortiz, 2000). The highly elevated numbers of mentally ill offenders in...

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Introduction It is common for people to share their problems with friends or family members as a strategy for overcoming anxiety, depression, or fear. However, a counselor may always be consulted in case of complex problems. For centuries, simple psychotherapy methods have been applied to solve mental issues. However, modern...

Information Processing Model Mechanisms

Introduction People receive much information every day: daily life, social networks, the news, and many other sources provide numerous facts and theories for the brain to digest. Most humans do not realise that a complex process occurs every time they think or react to something. However, the mechanism of information...

The Introduction of a Guided Visual Search Concept

Introduction In one of his early works, Wolfe et al. (1989) came up with a research paradigm of a guided visual search replacing the traditional serial search approach and enhancing the feature integration model. The paper was based on several experiments, which included searching for targets with variable numbers of...

Cognitive Development Throughout the Lifetime

Introduction Cognitive development is an important process in the growth and development of human beings from childhood to adulthood. Cognitive psychology development refers to the progression of areas of mental advancement, which determine intelligence. Mental progression is expressed through attentiveness, language development, and reasoning, making of perceptions, memory development, and...