John Hosper’s Psychoanalytic View

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People are not wholly responsible for the kind of persons they become. However, Hospers’ psychoanalytic view claims that people’s actions are an outcome of their unconscious mind beyond their control. Indeed, they face options when confronted with a chance to partake in moral responsibility despite being determined as the rest of nature. Before people act, they reflect, choose, and struggle with moral heroism’s conspicuous acts (Sartre, 2002). Humans are not entirely natural objects that behave like the natural governing systems decree. Much of living occurs as an outcome of habit. However, human beings chart the course of what they do in life. They are not only players in the game of their unconscious mind but rather scripters that have the conscious ability to determine their future (Sartre, 2002). For example, someone may not have the capacity to control global warming due to their inabilities to determine the causal variables. Therefore, as autonomous agents, a person acts to reduce the levels. Otherwise, living without considering negative consequences is detrimental to human survival.

Agreeing with Hooper’s deterministic view means denying people’s acknowledgment that they choose to do things instead of involuntarily being subjected. Depending on the prevailing conditions, some actions are within human control, while others are not (Sartre, 2002). Indeed, individuals cannot determine the actions stimulated by their unconscious mind. However, most of their conspicuous actions are a result of free will. The credibility of actions shapes how people’s minds indirectly impact their actions even though some compulsions direct the resulting action without human knowledge. If persons choose to entirely evaluate what they do base on impulsivity rather than meditation, they leave out the chance for mastering virtuous behavior.


Sartre, J. P. (2002). Jean-Paul Sartre: Basic Writings (1st ed.) . Routledge.

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PsychologyWriting. 2022. "John Hosper’s Psychoanalytic View." February 5, 2022.

1. PsychologyWriting. "John Hosper’s Psychoanalytic View." February 5, 2022.


PsychologyWriting. "John Hosper’s Psychoanalytic View." February 5, 2022.