Charting adult development through (historically changing) daily stress processes is an article that explores adult development based on people’s daily life experiences and the latest historical changes related to them. The authors utilize the results of the descriptive analyses conducted by the National Studies of Daily Experiences from the 1990s and 2010s, respectively. According to those studies, adults in the 2010s experienced stress 2% more often during the year because of the increased number of daily stressors (Almeida et al., 2020). Moreover, the participants of the latter study also reported that the stressors they had to deal with were more severe in comparison with the 1990s. Such historical changes were especially significant for middle-aged adults: the general amount of stress increased by 19%, and the correlated risks increased by 50-60% (Almeida et al., 2020). The participants in the 2010s also said the stressors significantly endangered their finances and life plans, which caused more distress than in the 1990s. Overall, an increase in the adults’ well-being observed in the 1990s was absent in the 2010s, and the article’s authors encourage further studies to re-evaluate traditional theories.
Midlife in the 2020s
The authors of the article Midlife in the 2020s: Opportunities and challenges claim that midlife development is not researched sufficiently, which leads to many misjudgments in this area. The lives of middle-aged adults are often correlated with various opportunities and challenges, and they are outlined and discussed in the article in question. Furthermore, the authors emphasize the importance of life roles, transitions between different phases, and alterations in mental and physical health (Infurna et al., 2020). The article also emphasizes family and its significance as a critical component of midlife since family members can influence its dynamics on the intergenerational level. The authors eventually define midlife as a “pivotal period that includes a focus on balancing gains and losses, linking earlier and later life periods, and bridging generations” (Infurna et al., 2020, p. 470). Additionally, the article evaluates widely-accepted views and experimental evidence on the topic and discusses potential options for promoting reversibility and resilience with different policy interventions. The authors believe that further research can help reconceptualize midlife, identifying it as the critical life period.
Established adulthood: A new conception of ages 30 to 45 is an article suggesting that this life period contains the most demanding and rewarding years in most developed countries. The authors identify significant aspects of that period, including progress in the chosen career, maintenance of the established partnership with another person, and caring for children (Mehta et al., 2020). Therefore, success or failure in these areas related to meeting the corresponding demands can directly influence an adult person’s life and determine their future path. The article’s authors determine this life period as established adulthood and argue that exploring it is vital for a proper understanding of human development on the general level. The article proposes “a new theoretical conceptualization of established adulthood, outlining its distinctiveness from emerging adulthood and midlife in terms of physical health, well-being, cognitive development, and the career-and-care-crunch” (Mehta et al., 2020, p. 431). In addition, the authors consider how various gender and social differences may impact established adulthood and alter the path of human development during that age. Further research on the subject is advised to monitor the development of midlife’s role in people’s lives.
Almeida, D. M., Charles, S. T., Mogle, J., Drewelies, J., Aldwin, C. M., Spiro III, A., & Gerstorf, D. (2020). Charting adult development through (historically changing) daily stress processes. American Psychologist, 75(4), 511-524. Web.
Infurna, F. J., Gerstorf, D., & Lachman, M. E. (2020). Midlife in the 2020s: Opportunities and challenges. American Psychologist, 75(4), 470-485. Web.
Mehta, C. M., Arnett, J. J., Palmer, C. G., & Nelson, L. J. (2020). Established adulthood: A new conception of ages 30 to 45. American Psychologist, 75(4), 431-444. Web.