A person’s or an animal’s behavior is predominantly regulated by underlying motivations and emotions. In this respect, the biological approach to explaining the link between the action and affective state(s) that caused it is based on the argument of homeostasis drive (Montgomery, 2018). In this view, all living organisms seek to sustain equilibrium at all levels of functioning. For instance, when the amount of nutrients in the blood reaches levels below the homeostatic threshold, a human being or an animal starts feeling hungry (Montgomery, 2018). Similar logic applies to such motives as thirst, sex, need for sleep, need for oxygen, normal body temperature, and pain avoidance, to name a few.
Additionally, emotions under this perspective play assisting role in equilibrium maintenance. Moreover, the release of such hormones as adrenaline and serotonin is associated with a living organism’s certain emotional states. Their production determines the speed of the heart rate, the amount of blood that is passing through muscles, and breath frequency (Harvard Health Publishing, 2020). Thus, they serve as the methods that motivate human beings and animals to maintain homeostasis.
Although the biological perspective provides a substantial explanation concerning the origin and functions of motivation and emotions, understanding these two phenomena will not be complete without also considering the neurobiological approach. In this regard, Harvard Health Publishing (2020) states that the amygdala serves as the commanding point that sends signals to other organs concerning the necessary reaction. For instance, if an animal or individual is in a dangerous situation, the former would command adrenal glands to produce adrenaline. Moreover, the brain can regulate the organism’s desires by increasing or decreasing dopamine (Montgomery, 2018). However, the brain itself operates in a manner that maintains overall equilibrium.
The knowledge of the connection between neurobiological and biological approaches allows an understanding of the body functioning holistically. It implies, for example, that some problems that occur in the brain may impact the body and vice versa. Regarding my field of study, that would mean the ability to better determine the true reason for some pathology in an animal. For instance, it may help to establish the connection between constant stress and bathroom accidents or digestive problems. As a result, due to this knowledge, the quality of care for the animals may increase significantly.
Harvard Health Publishing. (2020). Understanding the stress response.
Montgomery, J. (2018). Evolutionary mismatch, emotional homeostasis, and “emotional addiction”: A unifying model of psychological dysfunction. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 4(4), 428-442.