Psychological disorders are a list of ailments that have behavioral symptoms and can affect different areas of life. This paper will revise three scholarly articles about mental disorders. The first article discusses the relationship between depression and obesity and their causes. The second article explores treatment for autism spectrum disorder. The third article analyzes the causes and mechanisms of gambling addiction. The future directions of the research will also be discussed.
The Relationship between Obesity and Depression
Both depression and obesity are disorders that affect thousands of people worldwide. Numerous research has shown that usually, people who are depressed become obese over time or develop depression because of being overweight. This topic is essential to the field of psychology because these problems have profound effects on society and individuals, their perception of themselves, and each other. Milaneschi et al. (2019), in their article, describe the relationship between depression and obesity and investigate the mechanism of this relationship. They claim that these disorders are not independent and that the presence of one increases the possibility of another. The possible biological causes include genetics, immuno-inflammatory mechanism, and neuroendocrine regulation. Not all depression types are related to obesity. For example, melancholic depression is usually characterized by the loss of mood, anhedonia, and lack of appetite. In contrast, in the case of atypical depression, patients suffer from lethargy, excessive sleepiness, and weight gain. Thus, it is essential to differentiate between different types of depression to draw correct conclusions. Knowing the mechanisms of the relationship is possible to improve the quality of treatment in the future.
The Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental and psychological disorder that occurs in early childhood and can continue throughout a human’s life. According to Masi et al. (2017), the prevalence of the disease in the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, and Scandinavia was estimated to be around 30-60 cases per 10000. Because ADS is a lifelong condition, psychologists and psychiatrists need to develop an appropriate treatment. Although governments spend a significant amount of money on the treatment of ASD, a few options are known. Because of the multiple causes of ASD, such as genetics, environment, and social heterogeneity, it is difficult to observe any mediation (Masi et al., 2017). Despite challenges, early intensive behavioral interventions are considered to be a standard for the treatment of ASD. The alternative method is using medications, for example, risperidone and aripiprazole, which are the only drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (Masi et al., 2017). They seize aggressiveness and irritability in autistic adults and children. The future direction of the research includes objective measures of response rather than subjective ones.
Gambling addiction is a psychological disorder that stays on the same line as alcoholism and abusive drug behavior. It is characterized by risky decisions, a desire to put money on uncertain events. Individuals with gambling addiction suffer from family issues, bankruptcy, and criminal behavior. The mechanism responsible for an issue is a reward system. When a gambler wins, his or her brain releases dopamine that makes him or her excited and promotes further impulsive decision-making (Murch & Clark, 2015). The causes of the addiction may include the need for money, the demand for risky behavior, and avoidance from everyday life. Not all forms of gambling lead to abusive behavior. For example, the lottery is the most prevalent type of gaming, but it is considered to be the least problematic. After taking into account the mechanism and causes of the disorder, future implications include finding a more reliable connection between these two components.
Masi, A., DeMayo, M. M., Glozier, N., & Guastella A. J. (2017). An overview of autism spectrum disorder, heterogeneity and treatment options. Neuroscience Bulletin, 33(2), 183-193.
Milaneschi, Y., Simmons, W. K., van Rossum, E. F. C., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2019). Depression and obesity: Evidence of shared biological mechanisms. Molecular Psychiatry, 24, 18-33.
Murch, W. S., & Clark, L. (2015). Games in the brain: Neural substrates of gambling addiction. The Neuroscientist, 22(5), 534-545.