Development in Early Childhood and Early Adulthood

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Social and emotional development in early childhood

Social development is a process through which a child creates a notion of themselves, separate their identity from their environment, and learn to comprehend the mental state of others, facilitating their adaption to a community (Rathus, 2016). This stage of development may be described as a stage when one’s self-concept emerges, an adaptation of prosocial behaviors, and learning socially constructed gender differences occur (Rathus, 2016). Emotion regulation and control are a fundamental part of early childhood emotional development – establishing relationships with other children or grown-ups may become difficult if a child does not accomplish this task.

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Physical and cognitive development in early childhood

Physical development in the ages of two to six encompasses several skills that children acquire by interaction with their environment. According to Rathus (2016), “the preschool years witness an explosion of motor skills, as children’s nervous systems mature and their movements become more precise and coordinated” (p. 143). Cognitive development results in a child’s ability to reflect, cognize, and articulate their thoughts about their internal state and external world. Such faculties as memory and language undergo significant qualitative changes. At early stages, children may create inadequate word forms, as they generally apply found patterns to exceptions.

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development outlines several stages that children go through in their early development – the preoperational stage, for instance, is characterized by “inflexible and irreversible mental manipulation of symbols” (Rathus, 2016, p. 150). Lev Vygotsky’s theory of language development ascribes an exceptional place to the social aspect of learning; inner speech in his theory is another crucial feature in explaining the relationship between language and thought (Rathus, 2016). Overall, the investigation of cognition in its relation to language is a significant trend in the domain of early childhood development.

Social and emotional development in early adulthood

Social development in early adulthood is characterized by a sense of individuation, which may be accompanied by separation from home. Formation of long-term relationships also occurs, forcing individuals to cope with cohabitation, formalization of relationships, and, occasionally, parenthood (Rathus, 2016). These challenges, supposedly, trigger further emotional growth and maturation. Learning to balance intimacy and isolation is a descriptive feature of psychological development during the period (Rathus, 2016). Emotional development in early adulthood is the time when a person refines their emotion regulation skills and may acquire a sense of stability, finalizing the process.

Physical and cognitive development in early adulthood

Physical development in early adulthood may be described as maximized, resulting in the peaking state of health and several indicators being at their height. According to Rathus (2016), during this period, “young adults are at their tallest, and height remains stable through middle adulthood, declining somewhat in late adulthood” (p. 271). Cognitive development is in a similar state: tasks testing memory, verbal skills, logic, problem-solving, and reasoning show maximal results (Rathus, 2016). This enhanced cognitive performance illustrative of early adulthood is the outcome of the gradual completion of brain formation.

Perry’s theory of epistemic cognition seeks to explain how an individual’s system of beliefs is formed. The theory applies to those in the early stages of adulthood as they “may wonder why their beliefs differ from others'” (Rathus, 2016, p. 282). Labouvie-Vief’s theory of pragmatic thought investigates decision-making about possibilities among adults, establishing the notion of “cognitive health” (Rathus, 2016). A majority of researchers in the domain of cognitive development reach an agreement about the advanced status of cognitive abilities of young adults – this tendency may be morphed into a postformal stage in Piaget’s theory.

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Reference

Rathus, S. A. (2016). HDEV [Bookshelf Ambassadored]. Web.

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PsychologyWriting. (2022, February 6). Development in Early Childhood and Early Adulthood. Retrieved from https://psychologywriting.com/development-in-early-childhood-and-early-adulthood/

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PsychologyWriting. (2022, February 6). Development in Early Childhood and Early Adulthood. https://psychologywriting.com/development-in-early-childhood-and-early-adulthood/

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"Development in Early Childhood and Early Adulthood." PsychologyWriting, 6 Feb. 2022, psychologywriting.com/development-in-early-childhood-and-early-adulthood/.

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PsychologyWriting. (2022) 'Development in Early Childhood and Early Adulthood'. 6 February.

References

PsychologyWriting. 2022. "Development in Early Childhood and Early Adulthood." February 6, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/development-in-early-childhood-and-early-adulthood/.

1. PsychologyWriting. "Development in Early Childhood and Early Adulthood." February 6, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/development-in-early-childhood-and-early-adulthood/.


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PsychologyWriting. "Development in Early Childhood and Early Adulthood." February 6, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/development-in-early-childhood-and-early-adulthood/.