Human Development: Preschool Children

Physical development

During the preschool years, if provided with healthy living conditions and adequate support, children steadily increase in height, weight, and muscle tone. They continue developing physically as the related areas of their brains that control movement becomes more mature. The changes in their brains enable them to acquire both gross (walking, jumping, running )and fine motor skills (drawing, using scissors, cutlery, and more). At the same time, brain development allows preschoolers to develop emotional intelligence and people’s skills that help them with social integration. Between the ages of three and six, children learn to describe complex emotions and apologize than they upset someone. Gradually, they become more capable of controlling emotional outbursts and start taking rules into account. Kail and Cavanaugh (2012) state that there are important milestones that parents can use to benchmark the physical development of their child. The rate of development during the preschool years is contingent on both hereditary and environmental factors.

Children’s immune systems

The parents of preschoolers need to pay special attention to their health. Young children are more susceptible to certain diseases than older ones, which is why it is critical to be aware of such health threats. It is not uncommon for young children to suffer from the common cold five to seven times a year. A big part of the reason why it happens is the fact that preschoolers constantly come into contact with other children. At this age, they are less conscious about protecting themselves and others from germs: for example, they may not cover their mouth when sneezing. Gastroenteritis is also common in children as they can swallow germs when exploring their surroundings. During preschool years, children’s immune systems are still fragile and cannot resist external threats as effectively as the immune system of an adult.


Kail, R. V., & Cavanaugh, J. C. (2013). Human development: A lifespan view. Cengage Learning.

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PsychologyWriting. "Human Development: Preschool Children." January 4, 2023.