In many countries of the world, there is a process of global population aging. Many scientists today are trying to invent drugs foraging to avoid death or delay it. Therefore, it is essential to study the general laws of the aging process, its causes and mechanisms, and possible ways to prolong life. Fatigue at work, industrial injuries, polluted environment, lack of valuable and high-quality products, negative psychological atmosphere-all led to malfunctions in the body, deterioration of health, and, as a result, shortening of life. Proper mental development and personality formation have a significant influence on the aging process and a healthy nervous and endocrine system.
The nervous and endocrine systems are responsible for all processes of human life. They are responsible for thinking, consciousness, and psychological behavior. Nerves are present on the entire surface of the body and are also found in all organs and tissues. Nerve endings transmit signals to the brain and cause specific reactions. The nervous system controls the processes of thinking, cognitive behavior, and general perception of the environment (Thomson, 2019). Glands of internal and mixed secretion form the endocrine system. If there is a violation or deviation of the work of the nervous and endocrine systems, a failure of the hormonal background of a person occurs (Thomson, 2019). This affects not only physiological processes but also mental ones. Behavior, thinking, and general perception of the surrounding world are changing.
According to Kohlberg’s beliefs, a civilized person is guided by moral values in their actions. Moral values have developed in the historical development of humanity (Sprouts, 2019). They are increasing in the process of the ontogenesis of every full-fledged member of our society (Sprouts, 2019). Therefore, having passed through all the stages of moral development, an adult realizes that there is nothing right or wrong in the world. Moreover, they realize that the morality of an act depends not so much on its consequences as on the intentions of the person who commits it. A high level of moral and psychological development significantly affects the life span. A person who adheres to ethical rules is more mentally stable, which means that their nervous system experiences less stress. It is also necessary to say that a person who lives in harmony with their moral compass experiences less uncertainty and doubts, which positively affects their nervous health.
Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis implies that erotic disorders are the main factor leading to various diseases. Freud also noted that only childhood experiences explain sensitivity to future injuries (Learn My Test, 2019b). According to the theory of psychoanalysis, there is a constant struggle between the Id of the Ego and the Superego in the soul and consciousness of a person. A person is subject to strong emotions, constant worries, and fears. It becomes evident that repressed experiences significantly impact human mental health, traumatizing the psyche through emotional discharge. To not injure the nervous health, it is necessary to solve this internal conflict at the neurotic level at the expense of those memories and traumas that at one time stuck in the psyche as negative emotions (Learn My Test, 2019b). Life span is closely related to a favorable mental state, so it is necessary to find a way to release negative emotions and experiences.
Erickson believed that the role of culture and society is fundamental in the formation of personality. One of the main factors of life span is a healthy atmosphere and harmonious growing up. Each stage of growing up and construction is critical and directly impacts further development (Learn My Test, 2019a). Suppose at each of the new stages of life a person reaches the competence corresponding to this life moment. In that case, this person experiences a sense of mastery, which Erickson understands as the power of the Ego. The acquisition of competence helps to solve the tasks presented at the next stage of life. The social environment essentially forms a person’s competence, their ability to think and act adequately (Learn My Test, 2019a). A healthy mind, reasonable judgment, and awareness of the consequences of their actions are also essential components of a high life expectancy.
Life span is closely related to the normal functioning of the endocrine and nervous systems. In turn, the typical growing up, the positive passage of all stages of becoming a person, ensures the brain’s stable functioning and all internal systems of the human body. The psychological atmosphere and interpersonal communication are essential factors affecting the life span. It becomes evident that moral development and intelligence directly affect life expectancy since the brain without load ages much faster. People who have developed steadily and thoroughly, being in a healthy family environment, live a much happier and longer life. They are less susceptible to bad habits, suicidal moods, and promiscuous sexual life. The three scientists mentioned above agree that the human personality is a complex and exciting subject for discussion.
Of course, many other factors affect life span, for example, ecology and genetics. Nevertheless, everything begins with the person himself, from their early childhood. Of great importance in a person’s later life are their relationship with their parents, upbringing, and mental balance. A person who is in harmony with himself, who has passed all the stages of personal development, has a greater chance of finding a good job and providing a high material income. The level of material well-being has a significant impact on a life span. People with lower incomes are more likely to get sick and less likely to resort to medical care. A person needs care and love from the earliest years, as well as instilling the correct values, such as honesty and integrity.
It should be added that aging is not limited to the physical aspect – psychology also changes with age. Young people perceive time as something unlimited, and they strive to explore the world, meet new people. They are more energetic, open to new experiences, and friendly than their parents and grandparents. But there is also a downside: the young are also more superficial, impulsive, and emotionally vulnerable. Older people, on the contrary, feel how time is slipping away, so they stop exploring the world and dating and focus on finding meaning and developing emotional intimacy. Nevertheless, this is a reasonably generalized picture because the subjective age can be very different from the calendar and physical, and with it – the psychology of a person.
A person who lives a full-fledged emotional life, who feels unity with all the components of their personality, enjoys every day they live. Their nervous and endocrine systems are in perfect order, and their brain is busy with various work. It is much easier for such a person to build close relationships, communicate with other people. Perhaps it’s less complicated for optimistic and curious extroverts to get to know people and maintain close relationships. Maybe the whole point is that they are confident about their aging and the future in general. Nevertheless, it is possible to claim that mental health, positive attitude, and sociability unite centenarians.
Thomson, E. M. (2019). Air pollution, stress, and allostatic load: Linking systemic and central nervous system impacts. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 69(3), 597-614.
Learn My Test. (2019a). Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development explained [Video]. YouTube. Web.
Learn My Test. (2019b). Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory explained [Video]. YouTube. Web.
Sprouts. (2019). Kohlberg’s 6 stages of moral development [Video]. YouTube. Web.