The majority of the youths are at risk for developing anxiety defects in various environmental settings such as schools and residential areas. Several literature works have investigated the effects of stress disorders and potential intervention measures. Fung et al. (2019) demonstrate that a school-based mindfulness intervention effectively lowered the behavior challenges and enhanced emotion control results among ethnic minority youth with high depression features. Therefore, a mindfulness program is beneficial for ethnic minority youth in reducing perceived stress and coopting challenges. Wong et al. (2018), in their study, reveal that CBT is an effective method for improving the total anxiety symptoms and personal growth. Intervention measures need to promote various aspects of a child, including resiliency to distress disorders. Mindfulness intervention is significant for adolescents in a school setting due to its resiliency enhancement (Felver et al., 2019). However, there is a need for more research since the study fails to prove the stability of the changes across time.
Mindfulness intervention helps influence various aspects of individuals, such as working memory, which affects distress symptoms. Quach et al. (2016) indicate the benefits of short-term mindfulness intervention to improve the working memory capacity in adolescents and, hence, the need to examine the elements of mindfulness-based interventions among adolescents. Mindfulness intervention sessions are substantial in decreasing stress and promoting students’ chances of proceeding with their learning amongst ethnically diverse groups (Bluth et al., 2016). This particular investigation is relevant to the proposed study because it documents the potential benefits of implementing the mindfulness-based intervention in young people.
The literature review indicates that past studies have investigated the effect of mindfulness interventions on the various aspects of adolescents’ stress status. Mindfulness intervention has a positive effect that is beneficial in reducing perceived stress disorders. However, only one study (Bluth et al., 2016) has considered the effect of mindfulness intervention among adolescents from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The research, however, has the limitation of using a small sample size that prevents generalization of the findings and hence the need for examination of the findings using larger samples. Previous research has investigated mindfulness involving diverse groups without considering any specific category. Minority groups, such as those from poor backgrounds experience several challenges that expose them to stress. Ethnic minority groups are also a sensitive category that is vulnerable to distress and, hence, the need for mindfulness intervention measures.
Purpose of the Research Proposal
Individuals from ethnic minority groups face discrimination from the dominant groups and financial instability that makes the adolescents vulnerable to distress factors. This research proposal, therefore, suggests ways of establishing appropriate mindful intervention measures for ethnic minority adolescents. The findings would equip the counseling sector with significant knowledge when handling ethnically diverse groups with sensitive consideration of minority groups. The research proposal will enhance the understanding of what is efficient since it will help in approving the practicability and appropriateness of mindfulness mediation with the African American population.
What are the mindfulness intervention measures for the ethnic minority African American Adolescents?
The research question is important as it states the significance of the research proposal and highlights the main objective of the study. The research question gives information on what the study will focus on. The question shows that the emphasis of the research would be mindfulness intervention procedures with a particular target of the marginal groups related to other ethnic clusters in a school-based program.
The following research questions will also be significant:
- What types of mental conditions affect ethnic minority groups?
- What is the effectiveness of school-based mindfulness intervention measures on ethnic minority groups?
- What is the level of depression and stress among ethnic minority African American youth?
Null Hypothesis. There are no significant mindful intervention measures for ethnic minority African American adolescents.
The following hypothesis will be significant for the study:
- Stress and Distress are the dominant mental condition among ethnic minority African American adolescents
- Ethnic minority African American adolescents experience high levels of stress conditions.
- School-based mindfulness intervention measures are beneficial in reducing stress conditions among ethnic minority groups.
Population and Sampling
The research study will be conducted in three different high schools in three different states. The participants will be students from grades 9-12. A stratified sampling technique will be employed to select 30 students from each school. The selection will focus on ethnic minority students, particularly African American adolescents, making a total of 90 participants. The researcher will group the learners according to those who have engaged in courts, prior suspension, and those that use mental health support. This sampling method will enable the investigator to draw more precise conclusions by ensuring proper representation of the various student groups in the sample.
The inclusion criteria for the participants will consider English-speaking students since the classes and assessments are delivered in English. Another inclusion criterion will also focus on the maritime class period for specific life skills and business start-ups. Permission will be sought from the district school’s board and administration and the university’s institutional review board. Parents will also be updated to provide accord, while the learners will also have to allow the inception of the investigation.
Practicability and appropriateness are essential features of a study procedure to safeguard the validity of the study results. Assessment of viability and suitability shall be completed by collecting study enrollment and retaining data, lesson turnout data during each lecture, and a proportion of learner acceptability. The class attendance rate shall be determined for the participants who retained the institution’s enrolment at the institution during the whole study period. A credibility scale will be essential after the second class, the sixth class, and the last session to estimate the satisfactoriness of the allocated session.
The study will use the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to evaluate the overall nervousness of the participants. The mechanism shows responses using a 4-point Likert Scale of 1 for not at all to 4 for very much (Bluth et al., 2016). The reliability for the short form is α=0.87, while the potential of the total score ranges from 20-80, whereby higher scores show high anxiety. Several studies have confirmed that STAI is a reliable self-report measure based on its good internal consistency and test-retest reliability (Rodrigues et al., 2018). The Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM), a ten-item portion, will help to approximate the participants’ mindfulness. The instrument shows reactions using a 5-point Likert scale stretching from 0 for never right to 4 for always correct (Bluth et al., 2016). Peer-reviewed literature supports the validity of CAMM in measuring mindfulness outcomes in indigenous youth (Dion et al., 2018). The reliability will be Cronbach’s α=0.82 and a possible score of 0-40, with more significant scores implying high levels of mindfulness. Researchers have to consider the culture, language, traditions, and the long history of distrust for research in minority groups, particularly African Americans when developing recruitment strategies and data collection methods and procedures.
The students will complete an online baseline assessment after informed consent and permission. A computer program will then be helpful to randomly assign the students to one of the available two programs from the navigational period, including mindfulness and drug abuse prevention. The substance abuse class will be used as a research control. Mindfulness Intervention Learning to BREATHE L2B defines a mindfulness program for youthful people. The six themes of BREATHE include Body, Reflection, Emotions, Attention, Tenderness, and Healthy practices
The syllabus will change to house the school’s logistical requirements and the participants’ exclusive necessities. The course period will include 11 classes, with each taking 20 minutes. The classes will be held at different locations with modifications, such as short sessions of body scans. Another class will involve yoga, in which the students will hold their bodies in positions for long stretches. The assessment will focus on participants’ bodies, opinions, sensations, and attention. The last classes will focus on loving kindness, and class 11 shall involve walking meditation. An evidence-based drug abuse class designed to assist the adolescents in addressing substance use and coinciding life challenges shall be used as an active control.
The analysis will involve comparing the classes based on sociodemographic aspects. Pearson correlation, chi-square tests or Fisher’s exact tests for definite data, and independent t-test for continuous statistics will be appropriate. The credibility scale will be used to compare participants’ levels of acceptance of their respective classes. The outcomes will be compared between the intervention and control groups. Descriptive data will then be presented for research enrolment retention, before calculating class attendance rates representing several attended classes vs. the potential classes. Change scores of classes will be compared to obtain psychological results using Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests due to recognizable orientation (Bluth et al., 2016). Analyses will then be conducted using SPSS 2.0 with a statistical significance set at p˂0.05 using two-tailed tests. The psychological findings will be used as preliminary to enlighten the design of an upcoming greater efficiency trial that would incorporate more vulnerable school populations.
Counseling provides a framework for biblical principles against discrimination while encouraging unconditional love and care for all, irrespective of their backgrounds. The proposal discusses effective intervention measures for the minority groups such as the ethnic minorities like the African Americans facing mental distress disorders. The research advances the biblical principle of King James Bible, 1769/2017, Leviticus 19:33-34, “When a foreigner resides among you in your land, do not mistreat them.” The foreigner residing among others must be treated as your native-born. Love them as yourself, for you were foreigners in Egypt. I am the LORD, your God.” There is a need for early detection and prevention of mood disorders among adolescents in the United States, with a continuously increasing trend in prevalence. There is, however, a risk of neglecting the youths from the minority African Americans, when developing intervention measures for mental health needs (Fung et al., 2019). The White Americans need not mistreat the minority groups but include them in all their plans.
The principle asserts the need to establish intervention measures for mental health needs like distress disorders with impartiality according to the ethnic background of an individual. The biblical principle intends to reflect how God saved humankind from the foreign land in Egypt and hence encourages the need to treat a foreigner as a native-borne. Just like God saved all from captivity in Egypt, providing universal screening and intervention for mental health challenges and school-based mental health services would be significant to limit discrimination in care for adolescents (Fung et al., 2019). Universal intervention would emulate God’s love for all when He rescued humanity from Egyptian oppression and similarly, the school administrations need to incorporate all the groups including the African American adolescents in their intervention plans against distress (the Egyptian oppression).
Bluth, K., Campo, R. A., Pruteanu-Malinici, S., Reams, A., Mullarkey, M., & Broderick, P. C. (2016). A school-based mindfulness pilot study for ethnically diverse at-risk adolescents. Mindfulness, 7(1), 90-104. Web.
Dion, J., Paquette, L., Daigneault, I., Godbout, N., & Hébert, M. (2018). Validation of the French version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) among samples of French and indigenous youth. Mindfulness, 9(2), 645-653. Web.
Felver, J. C., Clawson, A. J., Morton, M. L., Brier-Kennedy, E., Janack, P., & DiFlorio, R. A. (2019). School-based mindfulness intervention supports adolescent resiliency: A randomized controlled pilot study. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 7(sup1), 111-122. Web.
Fung, J., Kim, J. J., Jin, J., Chen, G., Bear, L., & Lau, A. S. (2019). A randomized trial evaluating school based mindfulness intervention for ethnic minority youth: exploring mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(1), 1-19. Web.
King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. Web.
Quach, D., Mano, K. E. J., & Alexander, K. (2016). A randomized controlled trial examining the effect of mindfulness meditation on working memory capacity in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(5), 489-496. Web.
Rodrigues, P. F., Pandeirada, J. N., Bem-Haja, P., & França, J. (2018). The Trait Anxiety Scale for Children: A validation study for European Portuguese children and adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15(4), 472-480. Web.
Wong, D. F., Kwok, S. Y., Low, Y. T., Man, K. W., & Ip, P. S. (2018). Evaluating effectiveness of cognitive–behavior therapy for Hong Kong adolescents with anxiety problems. Research on Social Work Practice, 28(5), 585-594. Web.