How the idea of an explanatory style explains psychological disorders
The explanatory style is a psychological trait that allows individuals to offer similar explanations for different events using either an optimistic or pessimistic approach. It is advantageous in that an optimistic perspective facilitates healing. However, a pessimistic approach tends to exacerbate depressive symptoms. The explanatory style relates to the course’s main themes by offering insight into how patients cope with various illnesses.
Its emphasis on stability, externality, and internality influences how health practitioners explain outcomes when dealing with specific psychological disorders. Individuals with depression, panic attacks, and eating disorders are treated using an explanatory style test to change the way patients explain causes. It is vital to encourage patients to change the belief that individual actions have no impact in the face of uncontrollable circumstances. Unlearning helplessness and embracing optimism facilitate recovery from debilitating psychiatric conditions.
Comparison and contrast of three pairs of psychological theories
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development posits that children go through four different stages of mental growth. The theory aims to understand the process of knowledge acquisition as well as the nature of intelligence. Its strengths include the fact that it highlights how children take an active role in learning through interaction and experimentation. In addition, each of the categories is well-defined and logically arranged.
An alternative theory to explain cognitive development was proposed by Lev Vygotsky, who argued that cognitive skills are socially constructed (Myers & DeWall, 2019). Therefore, culture, language, and communal roles are essential components in a child’s journey towards developing memory, problem-solving skills, and the ability to pay attention. While Piaget’s theory emphasizes interaction with the physical environment, Vygotsky stresses interaction with the social surroundings as a means of mental growth.
It is vital to note that theories of motivation form an important aspect of psychological evaluation. The arousal theory proposes that individuals are driven to engage in activities that facilitate the maintenance of a high level of psychological arousal. The desire to influence the rewards system facilitates the release of dopamine which impacts a person’s physiological craving for specific activities. Similarly, the drive-reduction theory posits that physiologic needs such as thirst lead to an aroused state that drives affected individuals to act by drinking. Therefore, people engage in activities that reduce the impact of internal tension resulting from unmet needs.
However, this theory fails to explain why people engage in activities that heighten stress or reduce satisfaction. Both theories propose a biological basis for motivation where an individual’s response to specific stimuli impacts behavior.
Theories explaining human personalities are the foundation of psychological interventions. Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality development proposes that individuals gain their personalities through conflict among the fundamental elements of the mind (Myers & DeWall, 2019). Interactions between the id, superego, and ego determine a person’s temperament. Its strengths include the fact that it explains the impact of childhood experiences on adult behavior and it assesses the innate drives that prompt specific mannerisms. An alternative view was proposed by Carl Rogers, whose person-centered perspective suggested that people are innately good and desire to improve.
Therefore, the client’s perceptions are central to the therapeutic process, which improves outcomes. The theory’s strengths include the promotion of trust during treatment, the formation of healthy relationships, and the promotion of self-esteem. Both theories explain the evolution of personalities in addition to offering insight on useful therapeutic approaches.
Myers, D. G. & DeWall, N. (2019). Exploring psychology (11th ed.). Worth Publishers.