Review of Medical Physiology

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The article by Yang-You Huang and Eric R. Kandel provide a research of the current achievements by neurosurgeons and psychologists in the field of long-term synaptic potentiation LTP as of its properties and diverse nature in terms of researches and experiments provided in the brain centers worldwide. The data of the article is summed up including the newest and most authoritative sources and readings at the time.

The introductory part of the article is constructed in terms of the main requirements with the executive summary and the introduction to the discussion of the rest of the article. In this respect the authors indicate the main findings in the current field of medicine. The information is given with direct references of authors to have explored a definite parameter of LTP in its kinds. All in all, the introduction intends a reader to realize the point of the article.

Two aspects of the discussion are outlined, namely early phase LTP (E-LTP) and late phase LTP (L-LTP). The authors primordially give the compare/contrast description of both aspects of LTP with constant data as of their stimulation by means of inducement. Hippocampal area of the brain is pointed out to be the significant in the LTP processes. Furthermore, the objectives for the statements in favor of hippocampus’s ability to reflect difficult processes for memory storing are grounded on the experiments and researches of last years.

Such debatable issue was investigated for many times in earlier attempts of science to explore the idea of low and high frequencies for LTP, so that to stimulate and provide the work of hippocampus in its CA1 region. The results of past researches and of current ones are stated in the article beginning with the introduction. Thus, the beginning of it provides several questions and ideas as of theta LTP frequency in the CA1 region of hippocampus compared in L-LTP.


In accordance with Cowan et al (2003) the LTP is opposed to LTD (long-term depression) in homosynaptic induction in the CA1 region as well as in the whole area of forebrain. In this respect Huang and Kandel (2005) provide a well-structured analysis of theta frequency inducement of L-LTP, so that to show the examination of protein connection for making an experiment in bath. The way of the examination is represented in form of a chart and graphic diagram. The identification on the graphic showed the variables and changes supported by 5Hz frequency stimulation.

Thus, looking at the figures in the article the researchers came to a conclusion that the previous studies only discovered that isolated dendrites were not touched during theta frequency stimulation. On the other hand, the current experiment showed that the reduction of total number of spikes is apparent for theta frequency in the CA1 region. Ganong (2005) proves the idea that past experience is a proper framework for strengthening or weakening of synaptic conduction. Nonetheless, the authors of the article provided the experimental arguments that current experience is rather essential for making analysis of brain activity. Furthermore, the field of brain work and its potential is far from categorical reasoning of its mechanisms and capabilities for a man.

The results of the work displayed also that in isolated dendrites the volume of protein is enough to depress theta LTP. In this respect due to appropriate calculations the research showed that translation of isolated dendrites is viable for theta LTP, notwithstanding previous doubts as for this issue (Linden, 2007). The ability of CA1 region of hippocampus to provide processes of theta frequency impacts on pyramidal neurons and their cell body, in particular, also showed the importance cytoskeletal protein and its building function for neurons in terms of microstructural changes. This finding expresses that high-frequency stimulation of LTP results in actyn polymerization (Huang and Kandel, 2005). The so-called “synaptic capture” in L-LTP is discovered during the research.

Evidence that makes difference with previous studies is implied in the Kang and Shuman (1996) earlier report that BDNF-induced LTP are blocked in dendrites. The authors of the article did their best to find out “other side of the story”, namely that a mere extent of BDNF application promotes inducement of LTP. In this respect the idea of theta frequency and specific organization of neurons and their interactive character while going through frequency inducement becomes more apparent for further researches in the area of hippocampus. This area and its peculiar regions, Ca1, CA2, and CA3, are considered to be the primary and most important site of the brain while producing memory implications (Bennett, 2001).


Though, in spite of earlier presupposition of protein inactive role in the process of LTP inducement the researchers achieved data to argumentatively oppose and criticize the previous outlook on the hippocampal concentration of protein with all its types not in dendritic spines. The survey of the authors touches upon relatively new materials for the research. The positive effect of the studies is achieved throughout the overall look at the neuron structure and interaction in the above mentioned area of brain. Bear et al (2007) insist on the significant role of NMDA receptor connection for triggering synaptic effectiveness. This statement is similarly proved in the article while providing the example with BDNF-induced LTP in the bath medium.

Moreover, isolated dendrites and their spines are considered at large to be the location for major process in terms of theta L-LTP frequency stimulation. Transcription and translation of protein products became apparent for the neuroscience. However, these chemical and biological reactions in brain gave flow for further distribution of current findings in terms of gene products development and yielding.

Materials and Methods

The provision of the research was promoted with the help of biological materials and proper instruments. The technological basis presupposed the use of current innovations in making brain studies closer to the scientists and grounded on the scientific sharpness as for approaches implemented. In this case the article is full of descriptive material in this section of it. However, the use of definite technique for making experiments is not supported with a particular author who first insisted on maintenance of this or that approach toward described studies.

The experiment was successfully provided with the help of mice, as a biological objective material. A particular temperature and chemical conditions were determined during the research. Stimulation intensities, fEPSPs recording were used with distinct approach toward the conditional variables of materials with severe prescriptions made earlier. Slices of mouse hippocampus were tested and influenced by ACSF-filled glass electrodes (Huang and Kandel, 2005). All data are achieved due to an acute organization of the experimental part. The determination of all constituent parameters were fundamentally tested and reported with use of appropriate academic terms.


Bear, M. F., Connors, B. W., and Paradiso, M. A. (2007). Neuroscience: exploring the brain. Ed. 3. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bennett, M. R. (2001). History of the synapse. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Cowan, W. M., Südhof, T. C., and Stevens, C. F. (2003). Synapses. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press.

Ganong, W. F. (2005). Review of medical physiology. Ed. 22. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Huang, Y. Y., and Kandel, E. R. (2005). ‘Theta frequency stimulation induces a local form of late phase LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus’. Learning Memories. Vol. 12: 587-593.

Kang, H., and Schuman, E.M. (1996). ‘A requirement for local protein synthesis in neurotrophin-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity’. Science, Vol. 273, 1402–1406.

Linden, D. J. (2007). The accidental mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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PsychologyWriting. 2022. "Review of Medical Physiology." February 15, 2022.

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PsychologyWriting. "Review of Medical Physiology." February 15, 2022.