There is an argument that strain or stress is the major cause of criminal promotion. He develops the theory of stress and strain to include various causes of stress or strain. Agnew brings about three kinds of strain that cause deviance: these include the failure to attain positively valued aims; the lack of stimuli and the presence of stimuli which is negative in nature. There are different actions to be so as to reduce the stresses and strains so as to prevent them from occurring, this includes thorough counseling, doing a lot of exercises, and advocating programs for change. In addition, the essay will look at also how this is associated with domestic violence.
As first stated there are three categories according to the theory of Agnew. The initial kind of failure is on failing to attain positive objectives; he denotes that communities can affect the rate of crime by promoting the objectives that residents drive to and their ability to attain such goals through channels that are legitimate (Agnew, 1992). Such category is composed of three other minor categories: one is the actual failure to attain ideal objectives and or goals, also the failure to attain individual anticipations. The failure also to have a fair deal/treatment and or in a justified manner can result in stress. Failing to have realistic goals brings about deficiencies in personal skills and abilities which later lead to inability to achieve the immediate set objectives.
The other minor category is failing to be able or reach expectations which in turn develop to resentment, disappointment and anger (Agnew, 1992). This particular idea depends on the behavior of the person. Strain and stress can also be increased in a situation whereby the real achievements of any individual are less compared to his or her expectations. This gives a person an opportunity to compare their outcomes with the outcomes of other people in the community.
The failing to attain the positive set goals is the key point of GST theory. It makes one to have believe that partially the strain is lead by not attaining the objectives set by the communities (whether success in economics or attaining respect and status) causes strain or stress on the person to an extent of committing crime so as to literally achieve such these goals (Brezina, 1999). This implies lack of; the ability of an individual to handle more stressful occasions in life which may produce deviant behavior and feelings. Agnew’s last type of strain source, the presence of negative stimuli, which refers to things like the child abuse, negative moments and adventures at school, lack of homes, and poor relationship with peers groups (Agnew, 1999).
Agnew argues that crime is not the only way people will utilize as they respond to strain and stress. In Agnew’s view, there are three kinds of strategic ways, apart from actual crime, that an individual can use to tackle the strain and stress through other legitimate methods. He says that emotional, behavioral and cognitive coping strategic ways can be utilized to reduce or avoid stress and strain in an individual’s status (Broidy and Agnew, 1997). Cognitive strategic ways give the individual to avoid strain in a more different method. Emotional developed strategy needs an individual to major on eradicating the damaging emotions, rather than merely attempting to impede the event through means such as, physical activity and relaxation methods (Agnew, 1999). So as to reduce the stress that has developed a person can also use behavioral kind of coping strategy; a person can look for more constructive type of motivation or just try to remove adverse stimuli (Agnew, 1999). Corrective measures would be programs for peer groups, like the common midnight basketball, which tries to reduce the strains teens have when dealing with such peer groups. In addition to this support from the community, it’s important to change the general approach the individual uses to respond to their attitude and therefore lessen the probability of developing negative response from the community.
To respond to home based violence, it’s good that teenage related violence to their parents is a real effort by teenagers to respond to the strains “resulting from negative treatment either by their parents or relatives…” especially when there is somehow an inability to avoid such like treatment or action (Brezina, 1999).
To conclude, Agnew’s Strain type of theory shows that stress results to anger, and anger results to deviance. He strongly believes that stress is a key variable that joins strain to deviance. Agnew also proposes that actions like cognitive, behavioral, and emotional coping ways will assist a person in dealing with strain in a manner which is not criminal in nature. It is also shown that domestic based violence is as result of both stresses emanating from inside and also those gotten from social relations.
Agnew, R. (1992). The foundation for Strain Theory of delinquency and Crime. Web.
Agnew, R. (1999). A Strain Theory of Differences in the rate of Crime in community. The Journal of crime & Delinquency. Vol (36): 33-123.
Brezina, T. (1999). Violence of teenage toward Parents as a means of evading Family Stress.
Broidy, L & Agnew, R. (1997). Crime and Gender, a Strain Theory View. Journal of Delinquency & Crime. Vol (34): 275.