Al-Shagawi et al. (2017) studied 213 male university students in Saudi Arabia (Age: 18-26, Clinical Pharmacy: 76 (35.7%), Medicine: 137 (64.3%)) to determine stress levels, factors of its occurrence, and related self-treatment methods. The research method was a cross-sectional survey based on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Most students experience moderate perceived stress (110, 51.6%), and the most frequent self-medication was caffeine-related drugs (136, 63.8%).
The association between college, living status, and stress score were significant (p value < 0.05). This finding is consistent with the research by Al Rasheed et al. (2017). They examined 386 female students in Saudi Arabia (Age: 18-22, 343 (88.9%), 23-25, 42 (10.9%), 26, 1 (0.3%)). The method for the study was a five-month survey and PSS model. This moderate perceived stress (247, 64%) and caffeine-related drugs (191, 49.5%) were also the most common cases. Study levels, college, and stress score associations are also significant (p value < 0.05).
Wahed and Hassan (2017) examined 442 Fayoum University students (20.15 ± 1.9 years) regarding the presence of various mental disorders. The research methodology consists of a cross-sectional and Sociodemographic questionnaire as well as Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The primary psychological disorders of students are anxiety (64.3%), stress (62.4%), and depressive symptoms of varying degrees (60.8%).
Age is significant over twenty, female sex, obesity and stress and anxiety scores (p 0.049), and also between depression score and older age (p 0.04). Dores et al. (2018) studied 51 university students on the levels of type D personality, hostility, and anxiety using five questionnaires and interpreted the results using regressive analysis and Pearson’s correlation methodologies. Alcohol (p=0.008), nicotine (0.04), and caffeine (p=0.000) drugs have a positive association with hostility. However, hostility has a negative association with type D personality (p=0.017), anxiety (p=0.001), and lifestyle (p=0.000).
Van Zyl, P M et al. (2017) examined groups of students from the third (164) and fifth (131) semesters for a correlation between mental substance disorders. DASS- 21 based cross-sectional study was the methodology. Results shows moderate-extremely severe stress (29.5%), depression (26.5%), and anxiety presence (29.5%). Methylphenidate (p<0.01) and alcohol have an association with depression (p=0.01). Dores et al. (2018) studied 400 students (292 do, and 108 don’t do sports activities) on the difference between mental disorders levels. Results showed major significance in levels of depression (p = 0.001) and anxiety (p = 0.004) and minor in stress (p = 0.068).
Al Rasheed, F., Naqvi, A. A., Ahmad, R., and Ahmad, N. (2017) ‘Academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and non-health cluster colleges of a public sector university in Dammam, Saudi Arabia’, Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences, 9 (4), pp. 251-258.
Al-Shagawi, M. A., Ahmad, R., Naqvi, A. A., & Ahmad, N. (2017) ‘Determinants of academic stress and stress-related selfmedication practice among undergraduate male pharmacy and medical students of a tertiary educational institution in Saudi Arabia’, Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 16 (12), pp. 2997-3003.
Berk, Y., Kaplan, A., and Ağaoğlu, S. A. (2018) ‘An analysis of depression, anxiety and stress levels of university students who do sports and do not’, European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science, 4 (2), pp. 70-78.
Dores, A. R., Barros, D., Brito, A., Singh, S., and Teixeira, R. (2018) ‘The influence of anxiety, hostility and type D personality on health behaviors of university students’, Saúde & Tecnologia, 19, pp. 5-11.
Van Zyl, P. M., Joubert, G., Bowen, E., du Plooy, F., Francis, C., Jadhunandan, S., Fredericks, F., and Metz, L. (2017) ‘Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students in a 5-year curriculum’, African Journal of Health Professions Education, 9 (2), pp. 67-72.
Wahed, W. Y. A., and Hassan, S. K., (2017) ‘Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression among medical Fayoum University students’, Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 53 (1), pp. 77-84.