Review of Cognitive Assessment
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (KABC – II) is used for assessing the cognitive abilities of children from 2 to 12 years old (Lichtenberger & Kaufman, 2010). The Second addition extends the age range and can be used for children from 3 to 18 years old as well as toddlers from 0 to 11 months old. The test is focused on measuring cognitive abilities between white children and minority children, in order to assess the cultural difference (Lichtenberger & Kaufman, 2010).
Professional uses and purpose of the KABC-II
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (KABC – II) is meant to minimize the cultural gap between white children and children of minority groups and measure the knowledge they have received in their cultural circle. Two global scores are used to measure cognitive abilities in the test: Mental Processing Index (MPI), which excludes measuring acquired knowledge, and Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI), which includes measuring acquired knowledge. The reliability coefficient for all tested groups in MPI and FCI ranged between 81 to 95 and 94 to 97 respectfully (Lichtenberger & Kaufman, 2010).
Ethnic Groups tested for KABC-II
African American and Hispanic children in the age from 3 to 6 years old scored 97-100 comparing to White children who had a score of 101. However, for African American, Hispanic, American Indian, Asian, and White children at the age of 7-8 years old, the average score was 97. The lowest results for the Knowledge scale were among the children who belong to minority ethnicities, possibly because of the language barrier. On the other hand, children from minority groups achieved better results on the Planning and Sequential scales, where Number recall and Hand Movement subtests interfered (Lichtenberger & Kaufman, 2010). The conclusion could be that the language barrier is crucial for communication, but it does not have an impact on understanding.
Subtests of the KABC-II
Word Order requires a child to touch and object in the same sequence as the examiner. Similarly, Number Recall needs repeating numbers in the same order as the examiner and Hand Movement expects to follow the same series of movements. For Block Counting, a child is supposed to determine the number in each stack of blocks. Conceptual Thinking wants a child to decide which picture does not belong to the group of images. For Face recognition, a child must recognize the face among similar photographs after briefly looking at it. Rover requires to move an object choosing the shortest number of moves.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the KABC-II test
KABS-II provides a fundamental background, with more than 600 children tested (Lichtenberger & Kaufman, 2010). It is easy to administer, well organized, and attractive for children to use. Some of the subtests can be used in more than one group of children. For example, Word Order, Number Recall, and Hand Movement are not only used for testing all groups of children, but also are supplemental tests for other subtests. Extensive information for examiners allows analyzing data and results clearly for each of the age groups. Using MPI and FCI models gives a broader range of testing, making results more reliable and informative. However, the absence of a report for each scale excludes additional modeling of the test.
In their review of KABC-II, McGill and Spurgin suggest the administrative practice of the test is not enough to estimate the test result. Therefore they suggest additional examining to measure the individual level of a child. KABC-II is limited to MPI and FCI scale, so if one wants to interpret results beyond that score, one must apply different measurement instruments to ensure the validity of results. The researchers point out that the results generalize the MPI and FCI models when they should somewhat individualize it.
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV), was published by David Wechsler in 2012. The purpose of the test is to assess the cognitive function and identifying intelligence level or disability in children of 6 months to 2 yeas old and children from 7 months to 7 years old. It is widely used by professionals with appropriate education and experience for estimating cognitive and non-cognitive abilities in children. The score suggested by the test allows examiners to provide comprehensive expertise and assessment (Wechsler, 2012).
Reliability and Validity of the WPPSI-IV
The author provides a comprehensive analysis of validity and reliability in the test. The internal consistency is measured through the split-half method and is average for both groups of ages and range from good (87) to excellent (95). The test-retest reliability was estimated with an interval from 7 to 48 days and range from acceptable (75) to good (85). The validity was based on measuring the cognitive ability of children. Therefore, content validity ensured that the content and data analysis is comprehensive and correct. To ensure that the response process is accurate, the author reviewed feedback from examiners. The internal structure was assessed by analyzing items and objects used for the test, subtests, and psychometric data (Wechsler, 2012).
Subtests for WPPSI-IV
Subtests are intended to measure a child’s ability to memorize and retreat information. Some subtests provided in the WPPSI-IV are using the same concept with different difficulty levels according to age. The subtests are focused on estimating the Verbal Comprehension Index and Visual Spatial Index, which are intended to assess the cognitive ability of a child more accurately (Wechsler, 2012). This score allows examiner to assess cognitive function and provide comprehensive data analysis and results.
Scoring system of WPPSI-IV
The WPPSI-IV score can be assessed according to the manual provided with the test. There are two types of scores used: scaled and composite scores. The scaled score can be estimated by summing raw scored from all the subtests and then summed into a specific composite score. The WPPSI-IV suggests three scaled scores Full Scale, Primary Scale, and Ancillary Scale. The raw score of these scales summed up to Composite score to get final results. Test Material and Scoring Annual are organized to ensure the accurate assessment of the results(Wechsler, 2012). Moreover, the test kit includes all the necessary materials for the test.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the KABC-II test
The WPPSI-IV is useful in assessing the cognitive function of children aged from 6 months to 2 years old and seven months to 7 years old. It provides revision on its goals and measure the overall cognitive development, as well as follows the process of achieving goals. The test focused on the importance of assessing the intelligence index in children with further evaluation of their memory. Also, the author is contributing to comprehensive standardization and development, which helps develop new tests in the future. However, it should be noticed that different tests score different cognitive skills when they all should focus on estimating the overall score for all cognitive abilities.
Syeda and Climie, in their assessment of Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IVV), admit that the test provides a well organized and comprehensive evaluation of the cognitive function of younger children as well as accessible scoring systems to analyze data and measure the results. The researchers also agree that the test is a crucial administrative tool for professionals in measuring children’s intellectual disabilities or delays, which could foresee and treat early disorders in younger children.
Lichtenberger, E. O., & Kaufman, A. S. (2010). Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children—Second Edition (KABC-II). Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural School Psychology, 557–560. Web.
Mcgill, R. J., & Spurgin, A. R. (2015). Exploratory Higher Order Analysis of the Luria Interpretive Model on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children–Second Edition (KABC-II) School-Age Battery. Assessment, 24(4), 5.
Syeda, M. M., & Climie, E. A. (2014). Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence–Fourth Edition. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32(3), 265–272. Web.
Wechsler, D. (2012). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Semantic Scholar. Web.