Vulnerability & Resilience in Person’s Development

Introduction and Rationale

Nursing practice includes working with various types of patients to whom an individual approach is most often needed. A crucial parameter is to understand and cure the cause of the infection to eradicate the disease. In this essay, I would like to discuss the patient admitted to the hospital with signs of a stroke. The case is remarkable and exciting since timely help can ensure a person’s return to a prosperous life. Nurses play an essential role in caring for this type of patient because they are attached to people regularly. They not only bring medicines and take care of the hospital place but bear a communicative responsibility. Their sensitive and caring attitude to a person helps him not to be nervous and recover faster. For a clearer understanding of the clinical case, the characteristics of a particular patient will be considered further.

To preserve the confidentiality of the patient’s identity and ease of treatment, the person will be called John. He is a forty-five-year-old man who came to the hospital himself since he lives nearby. The patient complained of severe headache and nausea, which began about fifteen minutes ago. The doctors immediately conducted preliminary tests and asked him to smile, pronounce a simple sentence and raise both hands. One corner of the man’s mouth was slightly lowered, and he could not fully raise both hands. Then the specialists did a computed tomography and confirmed their assumptions about the stroke, which is why they put the man in the hospital.

The initial examination and filling out the questionnaire revealed that the patient smokes, is overweight, does not exercise, and works from 9 to 5, which shows a sedentary lifestyle. In the medical history, doctors found diseases such as diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation. Besides poor physical health, he was perturbed because he had heard about the deadly outcome. As a nurse, I had to monitor the patient’s general condition and help prevent vomiting, suffocation, and other circumstances. For a clearer understanding of the disease, risk factors, protective actions, and consideration will be considered further by a specific example.

Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and The Persons’ Relation to Each

Risk factors for certain diseases are behavior, previously suffered disorders, and genetic predisposition. An unhealthy lifestyle has many consequences and leads to the development of flow conditions. For example, people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are more likely to have a stroke than those who normally produce insulin (Anwar et al., 2017). The causes of diabetes can be different, but the main ones are associated with an unhealthy lifestyle, such as poor nutrition, excess weight, and prolonged and periodic stress. An increased sugar level in the blood over time leads to damage to most body systems, particularly nerves and blood vessels. Poorly functioning processes in the blood vessels increase the likelihood of a stroke. In addition, people with both diseases are less likely to recover after undergoing therapy, and there is a higher probability of a second attack.

An alternative cause of a stroke is a heart attack, in particular atrial fibrillation. It violates the core work that sometimes beats, then does not pulse. The primary symptoms of the disease are heart pain, breath shortness, increased pressure, and weakness. Some signs may result from an unhealthy lifestyle, such as smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, constant fatigue, and others. Additionally, people continue to eat incorrectly when the disease appears, although treatment implies a particular diet. Its main recommendations are to minimize salt, caffeine, and frozen fruits and vegetables. Many people think that with a change in habits and behavior, the body will recover and return to normal; consequently, they do not consult a doctor.

The third of the critical factors preceding a stroke is coronary heart disease. It is a “cardiovascular disorder occurring because of atherosclerosis or atherosclerotic occlusions of the coronary arteries” (Malakar et al., 2019, p. 2). In other words, it is a pathological condition in which the blood supply to the myocardium is disrupted because of damage to the coronary arteries. The causes of the disease mostly coincide with the previous theory of maintaining an unhealthy lifestyle. In addition, an important role is played by a violation of blood pressure, which has not been treated. A correct and complete diagnosis can be obtained by passing an examination in the clinic. For doing this, one needs to perform some standard tests, such as general blood and urine tests, a biochemical blood test, and a correlogram. Further, the mandatory items include instrumental examinations, like electrocardiography, coronary angiography, echocardiography, stress tests, and scintigraphy. After a complete analysis, the doctor will assess the threat, the severity of the disease, and its connection with other conditions.

Prevention of a stroke comprises several principles that must be followed to minimize the risk. They are recommendatory since it is impossible to exclude the possibility of illness completely. The first is the control of blood pressure since a stroke occurs because of circulatory disorders. Today it is elementary to do this; unique bracelets can monitor the force around the clock and send signals when there is a violation. The second is an extended stay in the open sun because of exposure to ultraviolet rays. Not following this recommendation, besides a stroke, one can get sunburn and skin cancers. The third parameter is a healthy diet; therefore, it is considered the basis for stable body functioning. The fourth criterion is an active lifestyle: sports, walking or climbing stairs to a top floor. Quitting smoking, alcohol, energy drinks, and minimizing coffee drinks are the sixth recommendation. All these products harm blood vessels and circulation and make a person feel worse in the long run. The remaining offers require medical intervention; hence, they will be considered separately.

Regular examinations and timely test control can save a life. First, a person needs to monitor blood sugar level, which is done by passing a routine blood test. The weight control can be carried to the hands of a specialist nutritionist if the patient does not manage to make a diet and a training plan independently. Everyone should pay attention to the genetic predisposition to the disease; if there is one, more frequent medical examinations are necessary. It is crucial since it is much easier to stop its development at the origin of the problem. Moreover, for a complete diagnosis, it is necessary to understand the individual’s development, the environment, and the customs in which a person grew up.

The complete picture of personality development is presented by Albert Bandura’s theory of social learning. It considers an individual as an object of constant mutual influence of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors. Its predecessor is the theory of radical behaviorism, which states that an individual learns from his own experience. This type of learning involves collecting positive and negative reactions to the actions and building a winning line based on them. The theory of social knowledge suggests that a person improves on his own experience and observes the other’s behavior. Its procedural components are attention, memory, motor-reproductive, and motivational processes. Attention implies the person’s priority distribution, starting from the possibilities. Memory handles the long-term preservation of aspects of one’s own and someone else’s behavior. Motor-reproductive processes are triggered after collecting information in memory; it is handled at the cognitive level. Motivation comes from within, and it forces a person to do what he thinks is right. Albert Bandura proposed a theory that establishes the significant determinants of human behavior associated with the risk of diseases.

The practical application of the study of risk factors, protection, and personal development will be discussed further in the case of John. First, a man leads an unhealthy lifestyle, which is a fundamental risk factor. Based on the initial survey data, doctors found he smokes, leads a sedentary lifestyle, and is overweight and male patients are more at risk of the disease than women. The medical history shows diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation, which increases the risk of a stroke. One risk factor absent in the patient is coronary heart disease. The positive point about the recommendation to reduce the likelihood of a stroke is that John does not spend time in the open sun and does not have a genetic predisposition. However, he does not undergo preventive examinations, does not exercise, and overeats. An additional survey was required to consider the theory of personality development, which will be presented later.

John was the middle child of three, to whom his parents paid little attention. He was left to himself, walked a lot, and did poorly at school. Based on this, his attention was focused on sharing with friends, and walking, but not on self-development. The atmosphere of relaxation remained in his memory, and it was possible to do zero and strive for nothing since his parents did not scold him for poor grades. The reproductive motor function analyzed information about behavior on the street, resulting from which John never drew graffiti. The correct motivation to achieve chief goals was not instilled in the child, and now he works as an ordinary salesperson in the office and is satisfied with his position. John is a classic example of a family with several children who had to learn everything himself.

Holistic Model of Health

The holistic health model comprises factors that fully embrace the person and his environment. Its five major components are physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and mental (Faletra, 2019). The physical component comes to mind when bringing up the topic of health. Usually, the body sends signals as unpleasant pain sensations when any functions are impaired. To maintain a consistently positive state, it is necessary to keep an active concept, eat properly and minimize stress. The emotional state strongly affects the physical; therefore, it is necessary to experience grievances and promptly seek help from a specialist if unavoidable. An alternative option is to keep a journal where a person can write about their thoughts and feelings. The social factor is crucial because it provides a sense of community and support. Religion is often referred to it since it helps to find like-minded people. The spiritual component is based on connection with nature; meditation is a good item of interaction. The mental aspect is established on constant self-development and maintaining physical health. Mind training allows one to be an attractive person and likewise to feel happy. For John’s case study, physical and social aspects of holistic health will be presented further.

As stated earlier, John is 45 years old and leads an unhealthy lifestyle. It happened under the influence of insufficient attention to child development. At this age, the patient already has enough diseases that could be avoided. John is an atheist; therefore, he cannot find social support in religion. The society surrounding him are sales managers and a cat at home, which sometimes helps relieve stress. A man does not have an established family, lives far from his parents, and has a couple of not very close friends; therefore, his social health is low. Such a patient requires sensitive and supportive care from medical staff. The nurse should perform her primary duties, such as turning from side to side, changing wet clothes, feeding, cleansing the bowels, and vibrating the chest. A secondary need for care is the maintenance of the social factor. John needs to feel nurturing and empathetic to develop a sense of connectedness in his recovery. During treatment, a nurse can become a loyal friend, a helper for the patient, and improve life after recovery.

Conclusion and Identification of Learning

The main conclusion of this work is the awareness of the relationship between multiple factors that lead to the development of vulnerability. John’s case has shown how negligent parenting of a middle child can affect his entire life and illness. They did not pass on religion to their son that would allow them to find accomplices and improve social skills. Additionally, by their example, parents showed a lifestyle with unhealthy nutrition and a lack of sports. I think that behaviors and habits are passed down from generation to generation, making it very difficult to change. As a result, in adulthood, John lacked the motivation to achieve lofty goals and change his life.

The significant risk and prevention factors are maintaining a healthy lifestyle and preventive examinations. John was overweight, had sedentary behavior, and had several illnesses that appeared for the same reasons. His situation was not the best, while recovery from an ischemic stroke is a time-consuming and challenging path. For full rehabilitation, John needs to rethink his habits and thoughts completely. A nurse could help him with this since sometimes, only a few words of approval and understanding trigger the mechanism of change.

According to the theory of social learning by Albert Bandura, a person relies on his own experience and observes others to form a strategy of action. As a child, John communicated with children who were not fond of anything except walks and graffiti. He decided he did not want to commit illegal actions as drawings; therefore, he jammed his attention on walks. In adulthood, the physical and social parameters of the holistic health model were at a low level, and there was a threat of disability or death. Fortunately, in John’s case, the therapy ended well, and when he left the hospital, he promised me he would change.

Reference List

Anwar, M.M.U., Jahan, S.M.S., Afrin, S. and Hossain, M.Z. (2017). Diabetic and non-diabetic subjects with ischemic stroke: risk factors, stroke topography and hospital outcome. Journal of Medicine, 18(2), pp.75–79.

Malakar, A.Kr., Choudhury, D., Halder, B., Paul, P., Uddin, A. and Chakraborty, S. (2019). A review on coronary artery disease, its risk factors, and therapeutics. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 234(10), pp.1–11.

Faletra, M. (2019). The Well Essentials. [online] The Well Essentials.

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PsychologyWriting. "Vulnerability & Resilience in Person’s Development." August 31, 2022.