Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder affects the intellect of an individual. One with this disorder is very hyper and cannot focus on a specific activity. The disorder is common and occurs through inheriting neurobehavioral disorder and goes beyond childhood. The disorder’s treatment is effective in lessening symptoms and also causing an improvement in general functioning. The key caregivers must be conversant with the disorder and clinical characteristics exhibited in different age groups, their implications, and the possible treatment.
Disruption on Normal Development
The disorder that affects a child’s development is seen through the child reacts to different situations that are not experienced by other children developing typically. Some of these characteristics are abnormal conduct seen through antisocial traits of fighting or bringing harm to people and objects. They are also not tolerating and express frustration when nothing is really an issue. The children also show characteristics of anxiety disorders where they worry a lot and are often nervous (Anand et al., 2017). Some have Tic disorder, which is seen through repetitive movements that cannot be controlled.
ADHD first presents itself in the early years of a child through some of these traits. The child has difficulty maintaining one position or remaining seated in class and wants to move around constantly. Such kind of movement happens even in situations where motion is inappropriate. The kid may also be loud and never do things quietly as expected, for example, when playing (Cortese et al., 2018). Also, the child may show difficulty in turn-taking, pays no attention, and constantly interrupts activities and conversations.
ADHD’s implication on one’s childhood includes a child often struggling in class, leading to academic failure. The loss results in the child receiving judgment from age mates and their parents, who expect them to perform better. There is also a tendency of a higher degree of accidents from the children, making them become injured compared to children of their age. Because of this disorder, they have difficulty getting acceptance and interacting with people around them (Anand et al., 2017). All these implications hurt the child, making them have poor self-esteem.
ADHD is not curable, but its treatment helps to reduce the implications and its symptoms. Medicine is one of the options for treating the condition. It is effective when combined with psychotherapy and disorder education. Drugs improve a child’s focus and learning process (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). Education is necessary for the child’s parents to develop a positive attitude and skills that will help them to relate with the child.
The disorder first presents itself in an adolescent through the behaviors they have. They have a high temper and are irritable with minor issues. The teens refuse to listen and comply with the rules and guidance of parents and people in authority. Mood disorders are another characteristic that the adolescent with ADHD portrays (Cortese et al., 2018). Signs of depression such as sadness and lack of interest in activities take the order of the day.
Disruption on Normal Development
The effect the disorder has on teens is on their communication and learning development. On their learning, the demands of school seem to add to the stress of the individuals. They develop tendencies of giving up and not want to involve themselves in activities they deem to be draining their strength (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). Parents have to be keen and aware of their performance both in class and outside class. Their disorder causes difficulty in speech and affects their ability to express the opinions and perceptions to other people, therefore, affecting their communication.
The impact on the daily living skills includes the teenagers affected opt to take drugs as an escape tool. The main reason is so that they can escape the challenges they are going through for a moment. Some experience unregular sleep patterns because they tend to sleep late and want to wake up late. This irregularity is a defiant trait because they wish to dissociate themselves with people by all means.
Treatment for adolescents having the disorder may happen through medication and behavioral therapy. A prescription of stimulants is made for teens with ADHD to help them be more alert improving their school work. Alternative treatment can be the use of non-stimulants because they have fewer side effects of anxiety, insomnia, and irritable reactions, making it a better choice for teens who have drug misuse issues. Therapy is a tool that helps the affected adolescent to change their behavior problem resulting from ADHD by making them understand the implications.
ADHD in adults does not have apparent symptoms like that of children. At this stage, there is less hyperactivity, but one can single out the disorder because of impulsive struggles, impatience, delinquent behavior, and inability to pay attention. Adults with this disorder can focus on specific tasks that they consider stimulating. But when it comes to mundane engagements, they lose their focus and give less attention to such activities.
Disruption on Normal Development
Ordinary development skill disrupted by the disorder for an adult is that of being in control of activities around one and mainly focusing on productive activities. The disruption is because they easily get distracted by mundane activities and opt for irrelevant activities that fascinate them. The impact of such distraction may be significant that one can become oblivious of everything going on around them, including time. A distracted adult neglects their responsibilities if they spend their entire time watching television or reading an exciting book.
The impact of the disorder on the daily living skills of an adult includes disorganization at home or the office, which is seen by things cluttered. Individuals tend to procrastinate important tasks, therefore, having trouble to start or finish projects. Their inability to complete tasks is also a result of miscalculating the time needed to complete, thus giving the tasks less priority. Because they end up losing track of time while engrossed in irrelevant activities, they are frequently late.
The treatment for adults having ADHD is medication, training and education on the disorder, and psychological counseling. For effective results on the treatment, a combination of all the aspects should be considered. For medication, doctors prescribe stimulants; they boost and stabilize intensities of brain chemicals. Other medicines are antidepressants which work for people who cannot take stimulants because of side effects and have health problems (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). Counseling helps to reduce impulsivity and improve esteem, and it makes one cope with past failures.
In conclusion, ADHD is a disorder that affects anyone across all age groups. People surrounding the affected should develop ways for helping and supporting them to reduce the negative impacts. The help is necessary because individuals with ADHD are prone to doing things out of the regular norm, such as unaccepted behavior patterns and limited development compared to typical peers. There is no absolute remedy for ADHD, but the input of different individuals and health providers lowers the symptoms helping those with disorders identify what can work for and against them.
Anand, D., Colpo, G. D., Zeni, G., Zeni, C. P., & Teixeira, A. L. (2017). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and inflammation: what does current knowledge tell us? A systematic review. Frontiers in psychiatry, 8, 228.
Cortese, S., Adamo, N., Del Giovane, C., Mohr-Jensen, C., Hayes, A. J., Carucci, S.,… & Cipriani, A. (2018). Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(9), 727-738.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2019). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. National Institute of Mental Health.