Psychologists often use different designs to study children’s developmental issues. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is an example of a childhood developmental challenge. Although the causes of the conditions are not known, medical professionals are constantly researching the predisposing factors together with new interventions. Correlational and experimental studies are mostly used in such investigations (Cummings & Sanders, 2019). However, each research design is well suited for distinct situations. In the case of designing a research study to determine the effects of a new medication to treat ADHD, experimental research is appropriate. An experimental study gives more control over variables and allows for reliable conclusions of cause and effect.
Given that the objective of the study is to determine the effects of the new medicine on the disorder, the perfect research is the one that permits the manipulation of variables. In the case of ADHD, the researcher needs to have control over the quantity of medicine to observe the effects on the patient. Hence, the experimental study perfectly fits the investigation for determining the new ADHD drug. Other than control over variables, experimental design is advantageous since the results are conclusive (Cummings & Sanders, 2019). However, the only limitation of the experimental study is time. The research method is quite demanding, meaning it takes a long period to achieve the results. Concerning correlational research, the edge is it provides comparisons between groups but does not warrant control over the variables. The researchers observe and measure the variables only.
Still, the same research study can be conducted with a cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Cross-sectional research involves the investigation and comparison of two or more groups. The samples or participants are only engaged once, and the researcher moves to a different study subject (Cummings & Sanders, 2019). On the contrary, longitudinal research entails a study of a single group over a specified period. A longitudinal study is appropriate for determining the impacts of new medicine in treating ADHD. The investigators can monitor specific sample groups and record the impact of treatment on the disorder. Results from a cross-sectional study inform a change at a particular time only. Such findings might not be the effects of the medicine. The longitudinal design enables the researcher to record observations at different times, providing a valuable pattern for medical decisions.
Besides, I can examine the effects of genetics and the environment by incorporating a twin study design using a correlational method. A correlational study provides me an opportunity to examine various sets of twins in certain environments. Since twins share almost similar genetic makeup, it becomes easy to tell how they change. Nevertheless, working with children presents a serious challenge due to their age. Investigators need to ensure compliance with the American Psychologists Association (APA) ethical standards to avoid lawsuits. Since children are categorized under vulnerable populations due to their age, the first step is to explain the research objectives to the children and their parents or guardians. I will describe the expectations, risks, and benefits of the study using informed consent. Lastly, I will protect their welfare by observing the five crucial ethical standards of beneficence and non-maleficence, responsibility, integrity, justice, and respect for their rights and dignity. Thus, I will comply with all the ethical requirements for researching children.
Overall, research is essential in psychology for understanding the various disorders affecting humans. For instance, many children struggle with ADHD, and through studies, scientists develop medicine and intervention methods that treat the condition. Research can be correlational, experimental, cross-sectional, or longitudinal study designs. Each method works best under certain conditions. Experimental and longitudinal are appropriate for determining the effects of a new medicine on ADHD. Hence, scholars should possess the right knowledge and skills to carry out research.
Cummings, J. A., & Sanders, L. (2019). Introduction to Psychology. University of Saskatchewan Open Press, 41-78.