Bowlby’s Attachment Theory

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Introduction

Attachment is the formation of affectionate bonds with people who are essential in one’s life. Freud’s theory: Early infant-mother relationships affect the entire life’s relationships. This theory was disproved: Later bonds also shape attachment patterns. The 1950s experiment with rhesus monkeys showed that attachment is more about warm connection than feeding.

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Bowlby’s Ethological Theory of Attachment

John Bowlby developed the ethological theory in 1969. The emotional bond with the caregiver is an evolutionary-developed mechanism that promotes survival.

Four phases of attachment:

  1. Pre-attachment (birth to 6 weeks).
  2. “Attachment in the making” (6 weeks to 6 months).
  3. “Clear-cut attachment” (6-8 months to 18-24 months).
  4. Reciprocal relationships (18-24 months and on).

Influence of Insecure Attachment on Adulthood

Secure children are more likely to develop healthy relationships in adulthood than insecure ones.

Child abuse and maltreatment often result in:

  • Physiological illnesses;
  • Psychological disturbances;
  • Maladaptive behavior.

Personality Pathologies

Cluster B personality disorders:

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  1. Antisocial Personality Disorder.
  2. Histrionic Personality Disorder.
  3. Borderline Personality Disorder.
  4. Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

A disorganized attachment style is more likely to result in histrionic or antisocial personality disorders. Research also showed an association between attachment insecurity and borderline personality disorder. Treatment methods: Interpersonal and Cognitive-Behavioral therapy.

References

Berk, L. E. (2017). Emotional and social development in infancy and social development. In Development through the lifespan (7th ed., pp. 182-213). Pearson.

Bonnemort, L. (2020). Exploring the impact of insecure attachment styles in couple adjustment through the lens of cluster B pathology [Doctoral dissertation, National Lois University]. Digital Commons NLU.

Capaldo, M., & Perrella, R. (2018). Child maltreatment: An attachment theory perspective. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 6(1), 1-20.

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PsychologyWriting. (2022, September 19). Bowlby’s Attachment Theory. Retrieved from https://psychologywriting.com/bowlbys-attachment-theory/

Reference

PsychologyWriting. (2022, September 19). Bowlby’s Attachment Theory. https://psychologywriting.com/bowlbys-attachment-theory/

Work Cited

"Bowlby’s Attachment Theory." PsychologyWriting, 19 Sept. 2022, psychologywriting.com/bowlbys-attachment-theory/.

References

PsychologyWriting. (2022) 'Bowlby’s Attachment Theory'. 19 September.

References

PsychologyWriting. 2022. "Bowlby’s Attachment Theory." September 19, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/bowlbys-attachment-theory/.

1. PsychologyWriting. "Bowlby’s Attachment Theory." September 19, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/bowlbys-attachment-theory/.


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PsychologyWriting. "Bowlby’s Attachment Theory." September 19, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/bowlbys-attachment-theory/.