Depression Management in Adolescent

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Introduction

Adolescents are men and women in their transitional age from childhood to youth. Their age bracket is from ten to twenty-two, and it is at this time of their life that they get to realizes themselves. On the other hand, depression is defined as a mental disease or disorder that makes one to lose interests, pleasures, develop a low self-esteem, and always feeling guilty; besides, it disturbs one concentration, thereby affecting their sleeping and eating patterns. If these conditions are not attended to, people become irresponsible, and it can lead to suicide; In fact, almost one million lives are lost through suicide (WHO, 2012).

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Discussion

People who develop a depression experiences depressive episodes, whereby they continue to work normally, though with some difficulties, and later, this may develop to a severe problem. In fact, the affected person cannot continue with his or her work. A depression may seem to be positive, but it has effects referred to as bipolar affective disorder. It gives sessions of both mania and depressive episodes that are separated by normal moods (Rahman et al, 2008).

Depression may develop differently among youths in varied environments. Youths that have been brought up in mixed ethnicity have a higher depression than those from a single ethnic group. In a society with various cultures, tribes, races or social classes, there is always that feeling of some group(s) being superior to others. Youths with both parents caring for them, and always being around without quarrels have a lower rate of committing suicide from stress compared to those from quarrelling or distant parents. However, as Thewatat (1992) had claimed that, children reared by restrictive and over protective parents are noted to carry depression symptoms. In fact, they consider their parents as less caring and being too protective than those affected by anxiety disorders.

The thoughts of how School Microsystems family or peer may perceive the youth has been associated with significant stress, which can result to a depression. In fact, when they are not given appropriate attention, adolescents may end up committing suicide. According to Carpenter et al (2000), body weight has a contribution to depression among the youths. According to Ge et al (2001), overweight people are related to depressed mood, lower self-esteem or somatic complaints. The perception of weight is related to some factors existing in a certain gender. The youths, especially females, regarded as overweight or underweight are usually depressed, and have higher chances of attempting suicide. The white females are the most concerned over their body dissatisfaction compared to black girls or boys and white boys, who would do little to adjust their weights (Eaton et al, 2005).

Many adolescents are schooling, while bullying among the school-aged group has been a huge contributor to their depression. Bullying either involves physically or psychologically attacks; especially, where there is a power imbalance between the victim, and the bully (Farrington, 1993). The bullying may be done to force the adolescent to indulge in behaviors than can affect their health. In addition, a reduction of emotional and social development among adolescents is caused by frequent bullying at school. They also develop problems such as low self-esteem, anxiety, depression and attempting suicide (Olweus D., 1993).

Some individuals may seek to discover their adolescents leading to a stressful life, whereby they engage in romantic relationships or their physical health change as they grow. Consequently, a change in their finances may occur, leading to adverse implications to their families or loved ones. In fact, experience of above effects is enough to depress an adolescent (Pine, Cohen, Johnson & Brook, 1999). They are stressed by the daily life hustles; in fact, Lewinsohn et al (1994) argue that adolescents can even be stressed more by daily hustles than the major life events.

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In general, negative thinking can be noted as the major cause of stress, depression and sometimes suicide in most adolescents. Adolescents view themselves being inadequate, inefficient or incompetent, and this makes them to feel unworthy, thereby lacking any desire to be alive. Furthermore, they become hopeless with their future thinking that their suffering will continue forever (Beck, 1964).

Conclusion

In conclusion, either cognitive or behavioral steps in life are taken consciously or unconsciously to control stress that may cause depression. Coping with stress is a process, which involves general adaptation after the initial alarm of resistance (Rew, 2005). In case a reaction causes an adaptation, it is considered healthy. However, if it causes exhaustion it is seen as detrimental (Lewis, 1990). In adolescent, there are stressors occuring because of age bracket when identity is developed, this is meant to help a teenager to grow independently from their parents (Selye, 1978). These stressors are influenced by certain factors, and that is why they vary among adolescents. For example, Microsystems level factors that have direct influences; thus, they need to be understood (Moos, 2002).

The general weakness in managing depression among adolescents is observed weakness in applying data assessment procedures (Compas, Canon-smith, Saltzman, Thomsen & Wadworth, 2001). However, there is a gap between knowing various ways of coping and developing that can help adolescents learn new things.

References

Beck, A. T. (1964). Thinking and depression: 2. Theory and therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 10, 561–571.

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Carpenter K. M., Hasin D. S., Allison D. B. & Faith M. S. (2000). Relationships between obesity and DSM-IV major depressive disorder, suicide ideation and suicide attempts: results from a general population study. Am J Public Health. 90 (2), 251-257.

Compas, B.E., Connor-Smith, J.K., Saltzman, H., Thomsen, A.H. & Wadsworth, M.E. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127(1), 97–127.

Eaton D. K, Lowry R., Brener N. D., Galuska D. A. & Crosby A. E. (2005). Association of body mass index and perceived weight with suicide ideation and suicide attempts among US high school students. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.159, 513-519.

Farrington DP. (1993). Understanding and preventing bullying. Crime Justice, 17, 381-458.

Ge X., Elder H., Regnerus, M., & Cox C. (2001). Pubertal transitions, perceptions of being overweight, and adolescents’ psychological maladjustment: gender and ethnic differences. Soc Psychol Q, 64(4), 363-375.

Lewis, R. & Frydenberg, E. (2002). Concomitants of failure to cope: What we should teach adolescents about coping. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(3), 419–431.

Lewinsohn, P. M., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., Rohde, P., Gotlib, H. &Hops, H. (1994). Adolescent psychopathology II: Psychosocial risk factors for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 302–315.

Moos, R.H. (2002). Life stressors, social resources and coping skills in youth: Applications to adolescents with chronic disorders. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(4), 22–29.

Olweus D. (1993). Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell Publishing.

Pine, D. S., Cohen, E., Cohen, P & Brook, J. S. (1999). Adolescent depressive symptoms as predictors of adult depression: Moodiness or mood disorder? American Journal Psychiatry, 156, 133–135.

Rahman A, Patel V, Maselko J & Kirkwood B. (2008).The neglected ‘m’ in MCH programmes– why mental health of mothers is important for child nutrition. Trop Med Int Health, 13, 579-83.

Selye, H. (1978). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Rew, L. (2005). Adolescent health. A multidisciplinary approach to theory, research and intervention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Thewatat, R. (1992). Depression in high school students in Chonburi province. Unpublished master’s thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.

World Health Organization (2012). World suicide prevention day. Web.

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