Emotional Intelligence: Annotated Bibliography

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Mayer, J., D., Salovey, P., and Caruso (2004). Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Finding, and Implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15 (3), 197-215.

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There is a controversy on emotional intelligence; some psychologists consider it a misleading notion that defies acceptable measurements. Others, however, supported by significant research believe it is important for competencies in any job. Mayer and colleagues (2004) responded to this controversy in a detailed literature review on the theory, controversies, validity of emotional intelligence tests, and their validity to predict success in life.

The authors recognized that intelligence is not a single entity but is the aptitude to perform a subtle thought and it is the general ability to learn from and adjust to the environment. Therefore, there are many intelligence types like social, practical, personally identified by the nature of stimulating information. Thus, emotional intelligence is the kind of intelligence-driven by emotion. The authors suggested each emotion passes on a specific array of signals expressed through special communication channels, influenced by the pattern of associated signals from cognitive, proprioceptive, and effective channels.

Mayer and colleagues (2004), inferred there is great psychology literature supporting the emotional intelligence concept, and the research in this field is expanding. However, the controversy is essential because of using self-report approaches, which are suitable to measure self-perceived emotional intelligence but do not work as real measures for this intelligence ability. The authors inferred there are many studies that suggest other tests of higher standards and more specific features. The authors suggested future research should be directed at learning more of what emotional intelligence predicts, how it relates to other types of intelligence, understanding its driving mechanisms. They also suggested studying emotional intelligence’s influence on behavioral outcomes and expanding its measurement to all age groups.

Conte, J., M. (2005). A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures. J. Organiz. Behav., 26, 433-440.

Conte (2005) recognized that emotional intelligence (EI) measures vary in content and methods of measurements based on the approach used whether informant, personality-based, ability-based, or self-report. Thus, there are four principal types of psychometric measurement tests for EI, first is the emotional competence inventory (ECI), and the second is bar-on emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i). The other tests are the multifactor emotional intelligence scale (MEIS), and its updated Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT). Conte (2005) critically reviewed the literature examining these tests and comparing their results.

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The author inferred the overall EI measures show satisfactory internal consistency that is an adequate association among items of the same test, and measures of the same construct. However, self-report measures have just accepted internal consistency, and some subscales of ability-based EI measures have marginally accepted internal consistency. The author also inferred validity of EI measures that is aptness, significance, and expediency are inferior to reliability or the degree of having no errors of measurements. In other words, the test questions or assignments are fewer representatives of the content’s scope.

Conte (2005) explained the difference between validity and reliability of emotional intelligence measurements on the grounds of ambiguous theoretical development of some measures, which led to the variability of EI measurement contents. The author also inferred that EI measurements correlate with the five personality dimensions; further, prediction of personality outcomes based on EI measurements are stronger than many researchers believed. The author assumed there are substantial questions for all EI measurements, although ability-based measures have the greatest potential. In conclusion, the author suggested future research about EI measurements should focus on predictive dimensions for jobs, education, or other outcomes, and how to overcome the possibility of deceptive self-report measurements.

Austin, E., J., Saklofske, D., H., and Egan, V. (2005). Personality, well-being and health correlates of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 38 (3), 547-558.

Austin and colleagues (2005) pointed the reasons for current interest in emotional intelligence (EI). First, the idea that people differ in emotional skills in measurable observations opens up a new frontier of assessment of individual differences. Second, there are possible motivating outcomes related to emotional intelligence. Theoretically, EI links to health status and behavior, and better stress management. It can also be a protective mechanism to resist peer pressure related to risky behaviors. Therefore, the authors examined the association between EI, alexithymia (defective understanding, processing, or describing emotions), life satisfaction, social support, and health measure.

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They also assessed the association between EI and personality to examine the validity of how the tests improve decision-making based on information provided (incremental validity). The study included 500 undergraduate students from Saskatchewan University, Canada, and a second Scottish group of Edinburgh University, Glasgow Caledonian University undergraduate students (64 students in total), besides 180 volunteers of the volunteer panel of the psychology department of Edinburgh University.

All participants in this study performed Modified Schutte EI scale, EIS (41 items instead of the standard 31 items), Short form Bar-On EQ-i (51 item-scale), Personality mini-markers (40 items scale of characteristic descriptive adjectives). Participants also carried out the NEO five-factor inventory test (60 items scale to assess personality dimensions), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale for life satisfaction. In addition to a short version of the social support questionnaire, and a subjective response to health-related questions. Since the number of questions is huge, participants were divided into subgroups and questions to subsets.

Results of this study showed a negative association between EI, alexithymia, and using up alcohol, while life satisfaction, social support linked positively to EI. Regression analysis, which is predicting a dependent variable from an independent one, showed positive regression between EI and personality. The correlation between EI and other variables is stronger than that between personality and the remaining variables. The authors inferred there is still a need to explore other variables that can be predicted better by EI than by personality.

Stuart, A., and Paquet, A. (2001). Emotional Intelligences as a Determinant of Leadership. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 27 (3), 30-34.

Stuart and Paquet (2001) defined leadership as the art of persuasion rather than domination, in a transactional perspective it is influencing a group of followers by a leader through a communication or shared model activity. On a transformational basis, leadership is changing ideas of a group of people beyond personal concerns to the overall benefit of an organization or community. Based on their review of the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence, they inferred emotional intelligence is a significant factor in setting the limit for the potential to succeed. They conducted this stud on 62 employees working in a Johannesburg based bank aiming to determine if employees of non-managerial positions identified as a potential leader have greater emotional competence.

The authors studied two groups each of 31 employees; superior position staff identified the first group as potential leaders based on scores of the Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MFLQ). The second group had lower potential as reported by their superiors using the same questionnaire instrument. Both groups underwent the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), which measures several components of emotional intelligence as self-regard, problem-solving, and social responsibility, among many other components. Comparing results obtained from both groups, the authors identified optimism and self-actualization scores were higher in the first (rated employees), while in the second group, scores on the positive impression scale were higher.

Stuart and Paquet (2001) inferred their results point to an association between the basic overview of transformational leadership and emotional intelligence.

Coetzee, C. and Schaap, P. (2005). The Relationship Between Leadership Behaviour, Outcomes of Leadership, and Emotional Intelligence. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31 (3), 31-38.

Aiming to study the link between emotional intelligence, leadership behavior and outcome, Coetzee and Schaap (2005) examined 100 managers working in different companies in South Africa using the Multi-Factor Emotional Intelligence scale and Multi-Factor Leadership Scale.

Studying the correlation between variables, the authors’ results showed a statistically positive correlation exists between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence scores (mainly to subscales identifying emotions). For transactional leadership, a significant correlation existed mainly with managing emotions subscales. Non-transactional leadership showed a significant negative correlation with emotional intelligence. The authors inferred emotional intelligence relates significantly to leadership behavior and outcomes.

References

Austin, E., J., Saklofske, D., H., and Egan, V. (2005). Personality, well-being and health correlates of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 38 (3), 547-558.

Coetzee, C. and Schaap, P. (2005). The Relationship Between Leadership Behaviour, Outcomes of Leadership, and Emotional Intelligence. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31 (3), 31-38.

Conte, J., M. (2005). A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures. J. Organiz. Behav, 26, 433-440.

Mayer, J., D., Salovey, P., and Caruso (2004). Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Finding, and Implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15 (3), 197-215.

Stuart, A., and Paquet, A. (2001). Emotional Intelligences as a Determinant of Leadership. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 27 (3), 30-34.

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PsychologyWriting. 2022. "Emotional Intelligence: Annotated Bibliography." January 28, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/emotional-intelligence-annotated-bibliography/.

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PsychologyWriting. "Emotional Intelligence: Annotated Bibliography." January 28, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/emotional-intelligence-annotated-bibliography/.