Management and Leadership Theories, Models and Methods

Management and Leadership

Hi all! I will part with you on approximately of the greatest important thoughts that have eternally been exposed in leadership and management. I will discuss leadership and management theories, leadership types, effectiveness among families, and advantages and disadvantages. Leadership is the aptitude of individuals to exert some influence in an organization and influences others to attain the organization’s set goals (Rigby and Ryan, 2018, p. 140). Charismatic leaders with emotional stability tend to lead their organizations in the proper channel of success (Sy et al., 2018, p. 60). Leaders who motivate their employees increase their job satisfaction; hence, they focus on working harder to achieve their goals.

Management Theories, Models, and Methods

Management philosophies are ideas surrounding suggested management policies, which may comprise elements such as outlines and procedures that can be executed in contemporary organizations. Management theories include the “Scientific management, Principles of administrative management, Bureaucratic management, Human relations, Contingency management, Systems management and X and Y theories” (Tuczek, 2018, p. 402; Sridhar, 2017, p.5). Fredrick Taylor developed the scientific management theory (Jinalee and Singh, 2018, p. 144). Taylor was among the people who scientifically explored work performance.

The Bureaucratic management model was developed by Max Weber while focusing on structuring organizations in an orderly manner. Weber’s goal in developing the model included the availability of precise rules of governance to run them (Kvachev, 2019, p. 29). This concept has occupied an integral part in creating procedures and standards that are key in major organizations today. Elton Mayo developed the human relations theory while conducting an investigation that productivity was designed to improve, which was key in the groundwork for the hominoid affairs movement (Nicotera, 2019, p. 10). Mayo’s attention was on altering employees’ waged circumstances such as disruption times, lighting, and working durations.

The systems management theory upholds that employees are the most crucial in an organization, while business units, workgroups, and departments are essential components. The model also emphasizes that organizations consist of several elements that should work together for the superior system to operate optimally (Lauer et al., 2018, p.16). The theory asserts that an organization’s success relies on dependence, interrelation, and synergy between sub-systems. Fred Fielder developed the Contingency management theory; his central focus is that not all management approaches function for all organizations (Velinov et al., 2018, p. 334). The author suggested that the traits of a leader had a direct impact on how they lead their teams.

Some management traits smear to every condition, and it is the leaders’ responsibility to adapt to the dynamic environment. American communal psychologist McGregor developed the X and Y theory and presented the models in his manuscript, “The Human Side of Enterprise” (Staub and Arslan, 2017, p. 135). Managers with negative attitudes about their employees use model X, which is authoritarian. In contrast, managers who feel dedicated, answerable, and self-motivated use model Y. Model Y is an interactive management elegance that results in a collaborative workplace, while model X results in micromanaging.

Effectiveness in Managing and Developing Work with Children and Families

Management theories, models, and methods enhance the development and management of work among families and children since they help them communicate, focus, and evolve. Management theories enable children and families to concentrate on their main objectives (Kanat-Maymon et al., 2020, p. 560). When management theories are implemented, they streamline the top priorities of children and families (Bose and Gupta, 2021, p. 421). Management theories allow families and children to communicate clearly; thus, they get to work in a more efficient environment (Hewett et al., 2018, p. 90). In addition, clear communication among children and families saves time and focuses more on attaining their individual and family goals.

Applications in Managing or Leading Work with Children and Families

According to my understanding, families, and organizations should apply management theories, models, and methods when managing operations with children and families by developing connected leadership traits. The recent formalization of management philosophies, models, and approaches makes it easy to discuss, analyze, and comprehend important matters among families and children (Hewett et al., 2018, p. 90). When leading or managing work with families and children, management methods, models, and theories help decrease stress by enabling families and children to be generally organized. Rather than rigid guidelines, families use management theories, methods, and models to play significant roles in offering behavioral guidelines to children and dealing with and regulating children’s behaviors.

Leadership Types

Trauma-Informed Leadership

Trauma-informed leadership style appreciates and understands the presence of global emotional experiences underneath the surface. When definitive answers are stimulated at work, each individual reacts depending on the extent of emotions, traumas, and scars caused by the trauma (Nealy-Oparah and Scruggs-Hussein, 2018, p.14). Some replies seem detached and stoic from emotions that caused my conflicts, which has a high chance of helping defend the emotions (Barto et al., 2018, p. 155). Some individuals find it hard to regulate their emotions and become emotionally occupied, and face complexities in negotiating their feelings and thoughts.

Feminist Leadership

The feminist leadership style is commonly linked with feminist social constructs such as intuitive, open, consensus-building, relational, and collaborative. Feminist leadership is mostly applied in managing and dealing with increasing worldwide issues in socio-political monarchies (Hmimnat, 2021, p.4). This leadership style responds to long-standing masculine leadership privileges that have regularly contributed to various desirable results (Wakefield, 2017, p. 18). The feminist leadership style regards women to be further transformational than male leaders.

Democratic Leadership

Democratic leadership is also referred to as shared or participatory leadership. In this type of leadership style, members have a participatory responsibility in the process of decision-making. Democratic leadership is commonly used in schools, private firms, and public organizations (Fiaz, Su, and Saqib, 2017, p. 147). The role of the democratic leader in this leadership style is to examine the members present in the group and monitor each member’s opinions (Jan DeBell, 2019, p. 6). Democratic leadership is among the most efficient styles that lead organizations to high productivity by permitting members to donate to decision-making processes (Al Khajeh, 2018, p. 8). On top of that, the participatory nature of this style results in increased morale among members.

Transactional Leadership

The transactional leadership style focuses on performance, organization, and supervision, which are integral elements in leadership. Transactional leaders focus on quality differentiation, thrifts of scale, efficiency goals, and strategies (Karolides, 2020, p. 14). In addition, transactional managers emphasize associated goals and tasks that promote the compliance of followers through punishments and rewards (Lai, Hsu, and Li, 2018, p. 570). Unlike transformational leadership, transactional leadership does not search for future changes (Kondratyev, 2019, p. 10). Transactional leadership happens when an individual relates with others with the objective of exchanging valued goals.

Pros and Cons of Leadership Types

Trauma-Informed leadership distinguishes and respects the expressive scars that persons may fight with. It can assist the leader take empathy and sympathy for their workers. However, trauma-informed leadership has low motivation, time management challenges, and chronic fatigue, which indicate that a follower is struggling. Feminist leadership helps women to attain qualitative cultural gains and gains. However, it makes women possess knowledge that makes them priceless assets (Samanta and Lamprakis, 2018, p. 182). Democratic leadership brings supplementary viewpoints, allows good problem solving, invites high commitment levels, and prioritizes honesty, but it can cause procrastination and negative emotions that are poorly interpreted and do not provide the best solutions.

The transactional leadership style rewards the best employees, punishes lazy employees, achieves short-term goals quickly, and follows a sequence and specific structure. However, transactional leadership discourages creativity since transactional leaders punish the staff who fail to meet their goals and lack creativity or failure room (Kondratyev, 2019, p. 10). Hence, workers never obtain the motivation to develop new ideas. Precisely, leadership theories guide managers on how they should effectively manage workers to achieve organizational goals.

How Leadership Types Would Compare Working in Children and Family Settings

Working in family and children settings/situations using trauma-informed, transactional, democratic, and feminine leadership styles has different impacts on the families and children involved. The trauma-informed leadership style would enable children and families to honor and recognize the sensitive blemishes that individuals fight with by enabling compassion and empathy towards others (Rosenthal, 2019, p.22). The feminist leadership type would enable women to act as role models and inspire their families and children to develop teamwork and authentic communication as the major elements that facilitate success (Wakefield, 2017, p. 18). Through the punishments and rewards offered by the transactional leadership type, families and children would feel motivated to attain their objectives. Democratic leadership would allow children and families to interact and exchange ideas since it gives participants the mandate to interact and share ideas.

Thank You!!!

Reference List

Al Khajeh, E.H. (2018). Impact of leadership styles on organizational performance. Journal of Human Resources Management Research, 2018, pp.1-10. Web.

Barto, B., Bartlett, J.D., Von Ende, A., Bodian, R., Noroña, C.R., Griffin, J., Fraser, J.G., Kinniburgh, K., Spinazzola, J., Montagna, C. and Todd, M. (2018) The impact of a statewide trauma-informed child welfare initiative on children’s permanency and maltreatment outcomes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 81, pp.149-160. Web.

Bose, I. and Gupta, S. (2021) Change Management Theories: A Study on COMAIR, South Africa. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 56(3), p.481. Web.

Fiaz, M., Su, Q. and Saqib, A. (2017) Leadership styles and employees’ motivation: Perspective from an emerging economy. The Journal of Developing Areas, 51(4), pp.143-156. [pdf]. Web.

Hewett, R., Shantz, A., Mundy, J. and Alfes, K. (2018) Attribution theories in human resource management research: A review and research agenda. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(1), pp.87-126. Web.

Hmimnat, S. (2021) Morocco’s State Islam: Securitization, Legitimization, and Authoritarian (-Neoliberal) Modernization. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, 44(4), pp.1-24. Web.

Jan DeBell, C.D.A. (2019) Democratic leadership. Dental Assistant, 88(2), pp.6-7. Web.

Jinalee, N. and Singh, A.K. (2018) A descriptive study of time management models and theories. International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research and Management, 3(9), pp.141-147. Web.

Kanat-Maymon, Y., Elimelech, M. and Roth, G. (2020) Work motivations as antecedents and outcomes of Leadership: Integrating self-determination theory and the full-range leadership theory. European Management Journal, 38(4), pp.555-564. Web.

Karolides, N.J. (2020) The reading process: Transactional theory in action. In Reader Response in Elementary Classrooms (pp. 3-28). Routledge.

Kondratyev, D. (2019) Transactional leadership theory, pp. 1-22. Web.

Kvachev, V. (2019) From Weberian bureaucracy to networking bureaucracy. Sociological review, 18(2), p. 29-35. Web.

Lai, C.Y., Hsu, J.S.C. and Li, Y. (2018) Leadership, regulatory focus and information systems development project team performance. International Journal of Project Management, 36(3), pp.566-582. Web.

Lauer, F.I., Metcalf, A.L., Metcalf, E.C. and Mohr, J.J. (2018) Public engagement in social-ecological systems management: an application of social justice theory. Society & Natural Resources, 31(1), pp.4-20. Web.

Nealy-Oparah, S. and Scruggs-Hussein, T. (2018) Trauma-informed leadership in schools: From the inside-out. Leadership, 47(3), pp.12-16. Web.

Nicotera, A.M., 2019. Human relations theory. In Origins and Traditions of Organizational Communication (pp. 106-127). Routledge.

Rigby, C.S. and Ryan, R.M. (2018) Self-determination theory in human resource development: New directions and practical considerations. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(2), pp.133-147. Web.

Rosenthal, L., 2019. Fits and starts: One elementary school’s journey toward trauma-informed leadership. East Carolina University, pp. 1-22.

Samanta, I. and Lamprakis, A. (2018) Modern leadership types and outcomes: The case of Greek public sector. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 23(1), pp.173-191. Web.

Sridhar, M.S. (2017) Schools of management thought, pp. 1-21. Web.

Staub, S. and Arslan, A. (2017) Environmental uncertainty and the effects of theory x and theory y leadership styles on ambidextrous innovation. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 6(1), pp.115-144. Web.

Sy, T., Horton, C. and Riggio, R. (2018) Charismatic Leadership: Eliciting and channeling follower emotions. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(1), pp.58-69. Web.

Tuczek, F., Castka, P. and Wakolbinger, T. (2018) A review of management theories in the context of quality, environmental and social responsibility voluntary standards. Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, pp.399-416. Web.

Velinov, E., Vassilev, V. and Denisov, I. (2018) Holacracy and obliquity: contingency management approaches in organizing companies. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 16(1), pp.330-335. Web.

Wakefield, S. (2017) Transformative and feminist leadership for women’s rights. Oxfam America Research Backgrounder Series, pp. 1-102. Web.

Cite this paper

Select style


PsychologyWriting. (2023, September 14). Management and Leadership Theories, Models and Methods. Retrieved from


PsychologyWriting. (2023, September 14). Management and Leadership Theories, Models and Methods.

Work Cited

"Management and Leadership Theories, Models and Methods." PsychologyWriting, 14 Sept. 2023,


PsychologyWriting. (2023) 'Management and Leadership Theories, Models and Methods'. 14 September.


PsychologyWriting. 2023. "Management and Leadership Theories, Models and Methods." September 14, 2023.

1. PsychologyWriting. "Management and Leadership Theories, Models and Methods." September 14, 2023.


PsychologyWriting. "Management and Leadership Theories, Models and Methods." September 14, 2023.