Murray’s Concept of Need and McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory

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The concept of need is fundamental to Murray’s explanation of human conduct. As an invisible link that connects what is directly observed and the resulting action, need may be imagined to possess the characteristics that a comprehension of the observed phenomena demands (Murray, 1938, as cited in, Champoux, 2017). Accordingly, needs are grouped into two categories: physical and psychological classes. While the former analyzes substantial activities of the body, the latter is concerned with mental fulfillment. Therefore, needs are dormant inner characteristics triggered by objects or experiences.

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Moreover, McClelland’s achievement motivation theory is a more powerful conjecture in explaining human behavior. McClelland’s surmise is based on the study of three different needs for achievement, power and affiliation. The supposition further postulates that individuals with strong need for achievement take responsibility for the outcomes of their conduct (McClelland, 1961, as cited in, Champoux, 2017).

People with a strong need for power concentrate on commanding the means of influencing the behavior of another individual (Atkinson & Birch, 1978, as cited in Champoux, 2017). However, people who focus on initiating, sustaining, and restoring positive affective social relationships possess the strong need for affiliation (Atkinson & Birch, 1978, as cited in Champoux, 2017). Essentially, the three individuals are very important in the growth of an organization.

McClelland’s achievement motivation theory is an important supposition to me because of two reasons. Firstly, the postulation is robust in many cultures and organizations. For instance, it has become typical of medium and large institutions to initiate performance appraisal system that enchants, preserves, and inspires its workers (Castilla, 2008). Essentially, many organizations’ reward systems consider all the three needs in the McClelland’s postulation. Secondly, the achievement motivation theory tends to describe all human behaviors within the three needs’ strengths outlined. Therefore, factors such as technical complexity, high interdependence, and catastrophic consequences linked with rare occurrences may ignite needs for affiliation or power or achievement, and affect decision making process (Roberts et al., 1994). Remarkably, McClelland’s motivation postulation gives a reliable explanation of individuals’ behaviors.

References

Castilla, E. (2008). Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers. American Journal of Sociology, 113(6), 1479-1526. Web.

Champoux, J. (2017). Organizational behavior: Integrating people, groups, and organizations (5th ed.). Routledge Publishers.

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Roberts, K., Stout, S., & Halpern, J. (1994). Decision dynamics in two high reliability military organizations. Management Science, 40(5), 614-624. Web.

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PsychologyWriting. (2022, July 28). Murray’s Concept of Need and McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory. Retrieved from https://psychologywriting.com/murrays-concept-of-need-and-mcclellands-achievement-motivation-theory/

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PsychologyWriting. (2022, July 28). Murray’s Concept of Need and McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory. https://psychologywriting.com/murrays-concept-of-need-and-mcclellands-achievement-motivation-theory/

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"Murray’s Concept of Need and McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory." PsychologyWriting, 28 July 2022, psychologywriting.com/murrays-concept-of-need-and-mcclellands-achievement-motivation-theory/.

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PsychologyWriting. (2022) 'Murray’s Concept of Need and McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory'. 28 July.

References

PsychologyWriting. 2022. "Murray’s Concept of Need and McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory." July 28, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/murrays-concept-of-need-and-mcclellands-achievement-motivation-theory/.

1. PsychologyWriting. "Murray’s Concept of Need and McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory." July 28, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/murrays-concept-of-need-and-mcclellands-achievement-motivation-theory/.


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PsychologyWriting. "Murray’s Concept of Need and McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory." July 28, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/murrays-concept-of-need-and-mcclellands-achievement-motivation-theory/.