Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

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The Situational Events that Trigger Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders

Post-traumatic stress disorders serve as the direct consequences of individual fear-provoking events that take place in the life of a particular person. In other words, the effects of multiple tragic events or dramatic incidents account for the feelings of helplessness and horror. One can differentiate a broad range of conditions that can inflict the problem since they vary in nature and individual influences. However, psychologists distinguish some basic situations that provoke post-traumatic stress disorders among human beings in general.

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Thus, due to Yehuda, the mass terrorist attack that was held in the USA on September 11, 2001, influenced the mentality of all individuals, who had a chance to witness the event (2002). The effect of post-traumatic stress disorders among the American citizens evolved as a follow-up of a direct threat, which accounted for the possible reiteration of similar attacks as well as bioterrorism. The eviction of the PTSD symptoms is primarily connected with the life-threatening environment that arises around the victims. Therefore, the illness may be regarded as the precondition and a variety of death-fearing experiences.

However, the experts claim that mass stress exposure is not the only reason for the disease revelation. The illness may be connected with personal traumas such as at-home violence, inherited risks, hormonal activity, or even temperament specifications. Consequently, the PTSD problem is identified on the levels of common and private fearing, which means that there are two types of damaging activities that evoke the illness. The mass level of anxiety refers to the community threatening, and the private level concerns the issue of individual damage. Moreover, post-traumatic stress disorders may develop, due to circumstances that do not depend on the person’s surroundings. In this case, one can speak of genetic diseases or character peculiarities.

Clinical Manifestations of PTSD

The investigation of the clinical manifestations of post-traumatic stress disorders refers to the ultimate tasks of the public health specialists since the analysis of the problem may assist in the further prevention of the disease from spreading.

There are four primary groups of symptoms that serve as the signs of post-traumatic stress disorders. The first grouping refers to intrusive memories. The manifestation is particularly vivid if there is a strong emphasis on the event that evoked the state. In this condition, people tend to be vulnerable to the reiteration of traumatic activities. They usually have some bad dreams about the events and practice both emotional and physical reactions to the appearance of influencing factors. The second symptoms subdivision may be named the avoidance concern. It embraces such experiences as intentional skipping of places, conditions, or people, which might serve as a recollection of traumatic events. Moreover, avoidance accounts for the personal discarding of any circumstances that may influence the quality of recovery. The third area of clinical manifestations concerns the conception of negativism. Thus, it is acknowledged that people, who passed through traumatic situations, adopt adverse views on the surrounding world. Their thoughts are negativism-driven and reflect the lack of interest in life, the difficulties in experiencing pleasurable feelings, etc. Finally, PTSD-prone individuals lead to the changes of emphatic reactions that are demonstrated by the patients. The problem may account for the overwhelming feelings of guilt, shame, and danger (Diseases and conditions, 2015).

Some experts argue that the active PTSD examination is based on five stable criteria. These are the process of witnessing traumatic events, the constant re-experiencing of negative emotions that are connected with them, avoidance, cognition and mood alterations, and unnatural arousal (Gore, Ahmed, Talavera, & Lucas, 2008).

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The Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders

Since post-traumatic stress disorders inflict some crucial psychological implications and damage the patients’ mental health. That is why it is critical addressing the problem of intellectual instability to eradicate the illness in the first place. The specialists differentiate a few types of psychotherapy that are employed by modern doctors throughout the reprocessing (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders, 2015). The first type accounts for the recreation of virtual conditions that can provoke post-traumatic stress disorders. The process of reentering the endangering settings assists the patients to identify the sources of fear, which contributes to their subsequent elimination. The concept of cognitive therapy represents the idea of talk treatment. Through this type of treatment, one can differentiate the patterns of thinking, which inflict fear on the patient. The procedures help the doctors to devise individual systems of positive cognition, which stimulate gradual recreation. Finally, eye movement reprocessing is a relatively rare procedure, which combines exposure therapy with some eye movements that assist in processing traumatic experiences. The reviewed therapy types are often compared to such trite methodologies as usual care and waiting list treatment (Bisson et al., 2007).

Currently, some clinical approaches are directed to the creation of some innovative PTSD therapies. It is claimed that professional nursing treatment programs include techniques that are selected based on individual peculiarities that regard separate patients. Moreover, a professional nurse must discuss the methods of recreation with people, who are required to experience them.


Bisson, J., Ehlers, A., Matthews, R., Pilling, S., Richards, D., & Turner, S. (2007). Psychological treatments for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(1), 97-104.

Diseases and conditions. (2015). Web.

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Gore, T., Ahmed, I., Talavera, F., & Lucas, J. (2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder clinical presentation. Medscape, p. 12.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders. (2015). Web.

Yehuda, R. (2002). Post-traumatic stress disorder. The New England Journal of Medicine, 34(6), 108-114.

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