Postpartum Depression (PPD) and Its Identification

Research Problem and Purpose

Katon, Russo, and Gavin (2014) focused on the problem of postpartum depression (PPD) and its identification, because it is a common issue that leads to adverse health outcomes and worsens women’s quality of life, but is difficult to prevent and treat at last stages. The purpose is to examine “sociodemographic factors, pregnancy-associated psychosocial stress and depression, health risk behaviors, pre-pregnancy medical and psychiatric illness, pregnancy-related illnesses, and birth outcomes as risk factors for post-partum depression” (Katon, Russo, & Gavin, 2014, p. 753).

Hypotheses and Research Questions

Professionals wondered what causes PPD, what are the main at-risk populations, and how it can be prevented just as Demirchyan, Petrosyan, and Armenian (2014) and Bell, Carter, Davis, Golding, and Adejumo (2016), which proves the importance of research. Even though the hypothesis was not clearly stated, the researchers believe that “sociodemographic factors, pregnancy-associated psychosocial stress and depression, health risk behaviors, pre-pregnancy medical and psychiatric illness, pregnancy-related illnesses, and birth outcomes” cause PPD that leads to functional impairment and worsens child’s condition (Katon, Russo, & Gavin, 2014, p. 753).

Literature Review

The literature review used in the article is of good quality. It includes current sources, mainly published during the last decade. All of them are relevant to the topic of study. The authors critiqued the literature, which can be proved, for example, by the fact that they resort to different sources when naming risk factors. However, it would be advantageous if some discrepancies were discussed as well. Unfortunately, a literature review is not discussed separately, and some articles have no summary.

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

The article resorts to the framework of women’s health and primary care even though it may deal with psychology just like the article written by Figueiredo, Canário, and Field (2014).


1,423 pregnant women participated as they already had testing results. They were selected opportunistically.

Protection of Human Research Participants

Agreement from the participants and approval of the Review Board were obtained. Answers were anonymous.

Research Design

A quantitative design was used to conduct a prospective cohort study.

Instruments and Strategies for Measurement

Fischer exact tests and t-tests were used. Reliability and validity were proved by the comparison of the effectiveness of different tools.

Data Collection

A questionnaire was used to collect needed data.

Data Analysis

Appropriate statistical data analysis methods were used, including hierarchical logistic regression.

Interpretation of Results

Descriptive data for women with and without PPD was revealed from data analysis, along with risk factors. Sufficient information was provided to interpret these results.

Discussion of Findings

The discussion related to the women’s health and primary care. The findings supported author’s ideas with proper evidence. They were aligned with the previous studies. No serendipitous findings were described even though it was possible to speak about the effectiveness of education (McCarter-Spaulding & Shea, 2016). Additional attention was paid only to unexpected ones.


The sample size was limited because only one setting was considered. Possible previous depressions as body mass index of the participants were not discussed even though they could have affected results. However, Park, Karmaus, and Zhang (2015) claim that they have no significant influence on some elements, such as employment.


Researchers did not ignore the findings and based their conclusions and implications on them, confirming hypothesis and answering questions.


The authors point out their drawbacks for them to be improved in the future but do not provide a formal recommendation for further research. It is possible to replicate the study if needed.

Research Utilization

This research can help me to be more attentive to clients and identify PPD (or even risk for it) at initial stages. The research findings can be used in my practice setting as we provide primary care. It would be advantageous to conduct research with a random sampling of a large size, focusing on the previously experienced depressions. However, this article can already be used as a source of authoritative information. It may improve the quality of care provided to pregnant women, allowing them to avoid PPD or at least to minimalize its consequences.


Bell, A., Carter, C., Davis, J., Golding, J., & Adejumo, O. (2016). Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 19(2), 219-227.

Demirchyan, A., Petrosyan, D., & Armenian, H. (2014). Rate and predictors of postpartum depression in a 22-year follow-up of a cohort of earthquake survivors in Armenia. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 17(3), 229-237.

Figueiredo, B., Canário, C., & Field, T. (2014). Breastfeeding is negatively affected by prenatal depression and reduces postpartum depression. Psychological Medicine, 44(5), 927-936.

Katon, W., Russo, J., & Gavin, A. (2014). Predictors of postpartum depression. Journal of Woman’s Health, 23(9), 753-759.

McCarter-Spaulding, D., & Shea, S. (2016). American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 41(3), 168.

Park, J., Karmaus, W., & Zhang, H. (2015). Prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms in Korean women throughout pregnancy and in postpartum period. Asian Nursing Research, 9(3), 219-225.

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PsychologyWriting. (2022, January 28). Postpartum Depression (PPD) and Its Identification. Retrieved from


PsychologyWriting. (2022, January 28). Postpartum Depression (PPD) and Its Identification.

Work Cited

"Postpartum Depression (PPD) and Its Identification." PsychologyWriting, 28 Jan. 2022,


PsychologyWriting. (2022) 'Postpartum Depression (PPD) and Its Identification'. 28 January.


PsychologyWriting. 2022. "Postpartum Depression (PPD) and Its Identification." January 28, 2022.

1. PsychologyWriting. "Postpartum Depression (PPD) and Its Identification." January 28, 2022.


PsychologyWriting. "Postpartum Depression (PPD) and Its Identification." January 28, 2022.