This article presents the results of studying the long-term effects of childhood traumas and reveals a connection between types of traumas and subsequent emerging mental disorders. The authors divided the traumas and correlated studied groups into three classes: low trauma, multi-type victimization, and situational trauma. At the same time, they note gender and racial differences in the groups represented. The results obtained by the authors confirm the need and importance of clarifying the type of childhood trauma for the treatment of the resulting symptoms of mental disorders.
The study’s authors examine what effect race has on internalizing symptoms and externalizing behavior of Afro-Americans and Caucasians survivors of maltreatment. To obtain data, they involved children, parents, and counselors and studied the records of protection services. Researchers performed multigroup analysis and tested the conceptual model of race influence. As a result, the researchers did not reveal conditioning influence but noted that internalizing symptoms and externalizing behavior was higher in Afro-Americans.
The study’s authors examined the nationally representative sample of American students to identify links between childhood abuse and adolescent crime. They also tested the hypothesis that the incidence of maltreatment also regulates race, gender, and sexual orientation. As a result, despite the exact association of childhood maltreatment and negative behavior in the future, the mentioned hypothesis has not been confirmed. The differences in the consequences were that for men, they were stronger than for women. However, the influence of race/ethnicity and sexual orientation was not revealed.
The study’s authors focused on racial differences in the effects of childhood maltreatment on Black and White men. Among the three outcomes of child abuse studied – depression, violence, and drinking, the first two are more likely to occur. While the prevalence of maltreatment was higher among the black sample, its types and consequences were not significantly different. Although the study is limited to one city and gender, it has many strengths, like official data verification and the ability to assess long-term effects. The article is essential for the topic under study since it considers racial differences in maltreatment and its consequences.
This study reveals the issue of the prevalence of various types of maltreatment. The findings help identify the most common types and also clarify statistics on prevalence dependence on gender, race, and educational level. Many studies focus more on physical violence and neglect and less on emotional. The authors of the article consider five types of maltreatment – emotional violence and neglect, physical violence and neglect, and sexual violence; they also investigate the issue of their intersection in some cases. The article’s principal value is that the prevalence of emotional maltreatment among the white population and the physical among the black population was revealed, which can be justified by the cultural and socioeconomic background.
Curran, E., Adamson, G., Rosato, M., De Cock, P., & Leavey, G. (2018). Profiles of childhood trauma and psychopathology: US National Epidemiologic Survey. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 53(11), 1207–1219. Web.
Hatcher, S. S., Maschi, T., Morgen, K., & Toldson, I. A. (2009). Exploring the impact of racial and ethnic differences in the emotional and behavioral responses of maltreated youth: Implications for culturally competent services. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(9), 1042-1048. Web.
Lantos, H., Wilkinson, A., Winslow, H., & McDaniel, T. (2019). Describing associations between child maltreatment frequency and the frequency and timing of subsequent delinquent or criminal behaviors across development: Variation by sex, sexual orientation, and race. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 1306-1318. Web.
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