The concept of “personality” was developed in order to understand the social nature of a person. It is the most complex mental structure in which biological and social factors are inextricably linked. Interference in this structure, influences on balance and interaction, will necessarily affect the personality, both as a whole, and its relationship with other factors. To understand how to correctly and harmlessly influence the subject, it is necessary to know about scientific methods of personality research.
In 1978, a classification of personality research methods was proposed, which includes the following methods:
- Observation, which can include the study of biographies, clinical conversation, and more.
- Personality questionnaires, tests, and similar methods are based on the assessment of oneself and other subjects.
- Special experimental methods include modeling various situations and types of activities, as well as some hardware techniques.
- Projective methods are designed to diagnose personality, in which the subjects are asked to respond to an uncertain situation.
The most popular and scientific solid method of personality research is questionnaires and tests. During testing, the subject passes specific tests, solves problems, draws, and performs other tasks. When compiling such tests, it is required to consider many factors that should make the test more informative about what is being studied with its help. The evaluation methods of this study include the following criteria: reliability, validity, standardization, and practicality.
Reliability assessment is carried out using repeated testing, splitting the test, and a parallel test form. Validity is an indicator that shows how much the test measures the desired psychological property, quality, or ability. Standardization helps to adapt test scores into derivatives that will make it easier to understand the results. Practicality is the simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency of the test. Thus, it is important to use research methods for studying personality. The ability to psychologically competently “observe” and “talk” with a client can significantly increase the effectiveness of the professional activity of a psychologist and is a component of his professional competence.