Despite the obtained level of knowledge and awareness of skill assessment techniques, many students continue experiencing test anxiety and question the worth of this approach in education. Teachers may offer different tests to check academic performance, including classroom tests, quizzes, standardized tests, and written assignments. Standardized testing is a commonly applied assessment instrument developed and scored according to certain standards (Kinay and Ardıç 2286). On the one hand, the same conditions and information are available to all students within a certain period, provoking positive and fair attitudes. On the other hand, such tests affect student confidence and decrease the desire to study with inspiration. Instead of providing a true picture of students’ knowledge and abilities, standardized tests increase test anxiety. As soon as students are not willing to take tests, they begin questioning their future professional and career choices. They lack motivation and creativity but try to follow the rules established by their academic facilities. This project reveals standardized testing essence, analyzes its relation to test anxiety, and focuses on how variety and creativity are discouraged in the teaching environment, causing students and teachers to change their attitudes toward education.
The Essence of Standardized Testing Use
Many countries, including the United States, implement standardized tests in their systems of education. A standardized test is a form of an examination administered in a predetermined manner in different formats (“Effects of Standardized Testing on Students & Teachers”). Teachers create a list of questions or use the already offered options to compare the performance of students under the same conditions. A multiple-choice format is common for standardized tests, but it is not the only example for assessment. In most cases, students open their assignment papers and see dozens of questions with several answers. The task is to read the question and choose the right letter or number. Sometimes, students need to work with true or false statements and make a choice. At the same time, standardized testing is based on short-answer questions or essay questions, which requires additional writing and some creativity. Standardized testing is necessary to check students’ awareness of the theme and ensure that a topic is properly covered according to the required structure.
In any standardized test, there should be a benchmark in terms of which the assessment of student knowledge is organized. US public and private schools demonstrate different attitudes towards this form of evaluation, but the main idea remains the same – standardized testing holds students, teachers, and schools for some academic achievement (“Effects of Standardized Testing on Students & Teachers”). There are many examples of how standardized tests work in the US system of education, including California or Stanford Achievement Tests, Scholastic Assessment Test, and American College Testing. Each test has its goal and a season to be taken. Some schools use such tests several times a year to follow what has been taught at the moment and facilitate the generalization of knowledge (Benjamin and Pashler 20). Federal laws do not impose such obligations but recommend using testing once a year in different subjects. Spring is a common period of the year that standardized tests begin (Starr). The US Department of Education establishes policies for the administration and coordination of standardized testing. However, several decades ago, the outside impact was remarkable because American educators relied on the experiences of other countries.
Standardized Testing History
Although many American schools and colleges heavily rely on standardized tests’ results, several other countries participated in the promotion of this form of assessment. The first American standardized tests were traced back to the middle of the 1800s, but their origins came from ancient China (qtd. in Kinay and Ardıç 2286). Leaders obliged people to answer several questions about Chinese poetry and the elements of Confucius’s philosophy (Kinay and Ardıç 2286). In addition, Chinese aristocrats were examined for their awareness of calligraphy and horsemanship, while ordinary people were tested for military affairs, geography, and civil law to serve the emperor’s family (Himelfarb 151). These Chinese origins cannot be ignored in the discussion of modern standardized testing because they set the tone and define recent characteristics like appropriateness, dignity, and accuracy.
With time, the tests of the same format became popular in France. First, Francis Galton worked out the theoretical base of identical testing and used statistical processes to learn the hereditary basis of intelligence (qtd. in Himelfarb 151). Then, Alfred Binet, a French Psychologist, worked with children who had different levels of knowledge and skills to clarify what caused these diversities (qtd. in Himelfarb 152). His goal was to identify an intelligence quotient (IQ) of an individual, focusing on judgment, understanding, and reasoning abilities (qtd. in Himelfarb 152; Kinay and Ardıç 2286). The purpose was to find out what people knew on a subject according to some common grounds. Standardized tests were developed following new requirements and expectations and depending on educational, social, and political factors.
In the United States, teachers have demonstrated their intention to assess student achievements in oral and written formats during the last several decades. First mandated written examinations emerged in the middle of the 19th century, but standardized testing was officially applied to the US military in the beginning of the 20th century only (National Education Association). After the attempts with IQ tests were proved successful in France, some American psychologists initiated their contributions (National Education Association). The Chinese approach was also effective because it allowed American military leaders to test soldiers for their professional qualities in the army. Civilian standardized testing was advocated during the 1900s for different purposes, including school accountability and college admission (Himelfarb 152). In the 21st century, American students associate their academic achievements and professional proficiency with the results of standardized tests. Even though people continue demonstrating different attitudes toward standardized testing, most academic facilities do not find it necessary to cancel this assessment due to the existing organizational advantages.
Details and Benefits of Using Standardized Testing in Education
A test is defined as standardized when individuals should respond to the same set of questions that are carefully selected by an expert. American schools prefer this way of assessing student knowledge as it is a good chance to compare the results clearly and unbiased. Students from 3rd to 8th grades take obligatory standardized tests in language and mathematics, but additional fields like social studies or sciences may be considered (Starr). In the No Child Left Behind Act, attention is paid to student success in reading, mathematics, and science through the application of the education reform to expand state-mandated standardized tests (“Effects of Standardized Testing on Students & Teachers”; Kinay and Ardıç 2286). Student achievement can be measured in the same way and be used by all schools, colleges, and universities. Educators, parents, and community members observe a sense of progress and define the worth of their contributions to students’ development and growth (Starr). Students, in their turn, need to learn the material, get prepared for tests (emotionally), and answer the questions to demonstrate their awareness of the subject and progress over a certain time period.
Importance of Understanding Test Anxiety
Opinions about the importance and harmfulness of standardized testing vary because of the growth of such a psychological condition as test anxiety. Many definitions and explanations of this concept exist, and students, educators, and psychologists raise their concerns about this topic (Putwai and Pescod 284). In most cases, test anxiety is understood as a specific condition when individuals are anxious about coming performance-evaluative situations (qtd. in Putwai and Pescod 285). It is also a combination of physiological and behavioral responses and concerns about possible negative outcomes on an exam (qtd. in Lotz and Sparfeldt 397). Although it is normal to be afraid of tests and failures due to different personal and outside reasons, test anxiety may be dangerous for students because it damages their performance and impairs learning processes. It becomes hard to concentrate on assignments, multiple thoughts occupy the student’s mind at the same time, and the right decisions cannot be made.
Forms of Test Anxiety
Test anxiety may be observed in different forms and at different moments. Some students get worried right before the exam, even if being calm and confident during their preparations. There are also situations when students do not cope with anxiety before the exam but pull themselves together and demonstrate good results during a standardized test. Lotz and Sparfeldt also found that differences in exam transparency levels, subjects, and response formats predetermine test anxiety (399). Anyway, this type of anxiety remains a serious problem with debilitating effects in the field of education that requires professional help (Spielberger et al. 317). On the one hand, when a student is anxious about the future exam, more effort, time, and resources are spent to facilitate performance and achieve good results. On the other hand, anxiety disrupts the student’s mental health and leads to inattentiveness and low self-esteem. According to Putwai and Pescod, test anxiety is associated with uncertain control when students do not comprehend their behaviors and lose confidence in their abilities and knowledge (286). They may be aware of the structure and essence of standardized testing but fail to complete tasks properly.
Test anxiety increases the feeling of worry and interferes with test performance. In the middle of the 20th century, George Mandler and Seymour B. Sarason introduced test anxiety theory to learn and measure the effects of this condition on academic performance (Spielberger et al. 318). The psychologists worked with several students who took tests under different conditions and revealed two learning drives – task and anxiety – evoked in testing situations (Spielberger et al. 318). Thus, it is correct to admit that anxiety is a critical determinant of test performance that explains forgetfulness and irrelevant responses even in smart students who work hard during a semester.
During the next decade, other theoretical frameworks were developed to indicate the impact of test anxiety on students and the education process in general. Liebert and Morris proved worries and emotionality as the two components of test anxiety related to negative expectations, inadequate behaviors, and poorly controlled physical symptoms (Spielberger et al. 323). Although physiological factors affect students’ ability to take a test and implement learned material, cognitive factors always prevail in stressful situations related to testing. Finally, there is trait-state anxiety theory, according to which psychological defenses, stress, and cognitive appraisal of threat are variables in anxiety research that interact and affect academic results (Spielberger et al. 322). All these theories prove that test anxiety is a normal and highly expected state despite a number of negative characteristics and impacts on human behavior and understanding of reality.
Taking into consideration the fact test anxiety is not a specified mental health disease, but anxiety is a disease anyway, some recommendations can be given to manage this condition and help students. Parents, educators, psychologists, and even some community members may cooperate with students and make the best of standardized testing and related anxiety (Starr). The main goals of treating test anxiety are to improve attention, concentration, and confidence.
Many cognitive and behavioral therapies exist to improve the condition of anxious people and strengthen their test-taking skills (Putwai and Pescod 286). It is possible to address the experience of older students and ask about their memories and feelings (Putwai and Pescod 286). Efficient and regular learning processes become a significant part of a pre-test routine. Some recommendations are to work in similar places and follow the same schedule to create a structure and rely on it each time worries or fears emerge. A standardized test is a good example of a structural assessment, and when students know how to work systematically, they are able to control their emotions during tests.
Today, society understands that it is not always easy and possible to predict or control anxiety. As the exam or test draws near, the level of anxiety continues to grow and affects students’ skills and attitudes toward their knowledge (Lotz and Sparfeldt 397). Instead of treating this condition, it is better to help students understand anxiety. Relaxation techniques and the intention to replace negative with positive tasks distract and reduce the impact of coming assessments (Putwai and Pescod 289). Properly managed eating and drinking habits, communication with family members, and healthy sleep contribute to improved academic performance. Although students cannot control their nightmares about testing, failures, and other concerning practices, teachers should explain the essence of the test not to scare but support them (Starr). Test anxiety is present in student life, but it should not be a permanent challenge that changes everything in a moment.
Harms of Standardized Testing to Educational Health
The impact of standardized testing on educational health is frequently discussed in today’s systems of education and health care. The relationship between test anxiety and the necessity to take standardized tests provokes a number of controversies. Some people believe that this approach facilitates assessment for teachers and students, while others think it creates unnecessary limitations (Benjamin and Pashler 16; Jouriles). One of the most evident harms of testing is student anxiety and worries about meeting all requirements and achieving the desired goals. Young people need to rely on their knowledge, skills, and experiences to give answers with the only option – either right or wrong. There is no opportunity to explain the choice and understand what is done. Such visible and invisible boundaries perform different functions, and much depends on how students perceive these requirements and opportunities.
There are several main areas where standardized testing can be examined in terms of its harmful effects on students, including social issues, mental health, law, and human rights. Educational health is another sphere where negative impacts of testing can be analyzed. Jouriles underlined that the costs associated with standardized testing are high and questioned such concepts as competency, legality, and effectiveness. The physical and emotional well-being of students is one of the responsibilities of parents and educators (Starr). Paying attention to standardized obligations, teachers admit that they lose a lot and give prominence to something unnecessary or ineffective (Jouriles). Thus, it seems that such tests do not bring help or academic achievement but lead to the necessity to work hard for minimal profits. Instead of addressing real students’ needs and demands, teachers develop new tests and try to put all the course content into several questions with predetermined answers. The first harm of standardized tests includes unreasonable waste of time in most academic facilities.
Educational health is all about the conditions of students during a learning process. The US system of education has already succeeded in distributing breaks in education: two semesters with several holiday periods. Standardized testing usually occurs at the end of a semester or the whole learning process and is tied to significant moments in student life like graduation, funding, admission, or career (Cai 34; Kinay and Ardıç 2286). In addition to making serious decisions and choices that determine their future, students are obliged to remember past material and demonstrate their levels of knowledge by giving correct answers. Such activities require attention, evaluation, and critical thinking simultaneously, and not many young people are ready to divide their time and priorities properly. They are not able to cope with the level of responsibility and start to panic or behave anxiously. Therefore, the second harm of standardized tests to educational health is a liability increase.
Expectations vs. Reality
The essence of standardized testing is to obtain as many right answers as possible following the offered format. It means that these tests focus on test-taking skills but not on knowledge that students have about the subject (“Top 7 Alternatives to Standardized Testing”). Students are concerned about following the rules and requirements, giving the correct options without a possibility to develop a personal opinion, and meeting the deadlines because most tests are time-limited. Instead of strengthening their skills and awareness of the subject, young people are obsessed with correct answers in a special form. Current standardized tests are originally developed for some purposes, but most teachers believe that they measure a narrow piece of student achievement and decrease the individual potential that can be revealed in academic institutions (Cai 35). The quality of education is questioned because students’ answers do not cover all aspects of human life, affecting the future. Hence, it is correct to say that the expectations from standardized tests prevail over their actual worth, and the harm to educational health is the inability to treat this assessment correctly within the frames of one particular facility.
Mental Health Harms
Finally, all those stressful situations contribute to the development of mental health problems in students and the creation of new organizational challenges in their lives. Benjamin and Pashler found that the widespread use of tests negatively affects students who take them successfully (no benefits to enduring memory) and who fail (distress related to poor performance) (20). The relationship between low levels of performance and high levels of test anxiety has been proved by many researchers (Embse et al. 490). As a result, some students prefer to avoid unnecessary stressors and neglect preparations because of the inability to predict questions and answers and rely on the already known material. On the contrary, many students try to memorize as much information as possible to be ready for different questions. However, in such situations, they may forget or confuse most facts, which leads to failure. Teachers, in their turn, want to help students and give the material, but they do not address their emotional needs. The most harmful effect of standardized testing on educational health is the presence of multiple stressors within a short period.
Time and Speed Factors in Standardized Testing
As it has already been mentioned, standardized testing is characterized by several requirements and formats that should be followed by all participants. Teachers are responsible for preparing students and informing them about the conditions under which they are assessed. Students learn the material, memorize information, and make notes about how to behave and complete tasks. In most academic facilities, the content of standardized tests remains unknown until the moment of the examination. Jouriles investigated the situations when standardized testing turned into gaming, sometimes criminal. The grading system of one school may vary from the grading system of another school, and if one student gets a B at one place, another student with the same results could get an A or even a C (Jouriles). Many factors contribute to such results, and one of them is the student’s speed and providing extra time during the exam. According to Furlano et al., the goal of extended time is to accommodate individuals with certain needs and manage construct-irrelevant variance (160). In other words, some students may need additional time to cope with standardized testing due to their personal qualities.
Speed and Accuracy
Following a common opinion, standardized tests favor speed and correctness. Students who possess themselves as quick thinkers and stress-resistant believe that they can easily complete all the necessary assignments, and teachers do not pay much attention to assisting them. However, if a student has a learning disability or another behavioral deviation that could affect the assessment results, teachers should consider additional opportunities and investigate cases thoroughly (Furlano et al. 155). Therefore, time and speed factors become the two significant determinants of how different students can take a standardized test within the same classroom.
Biases in Testing and Time
In fact, it is impossible to recognize students’ abilities if a test is taken for the first time. For example, a student can demonstrate active participation during class discussions and get good grades for homework and written assignments when time limitations are not imposed. However, his/her scores on tests can be low, and the task of an educator is to clarify the reasons for such results. Sometimes, parents or students themselves report on their learning disabilities, and teachers understand their responsibility to assist such individuals without discriminating against other students in a group. One of the cons of standardized tests is the possibility of being considered sexist, classist, or racist (“Top 7 Alternatives to Standardized Testing”). Today, there are many immigrants in public schools, and their cultural background varies from the background of the native citizens. These students may need more time to learn the subject and apply their knowledge in standardized tests in English (if this language is not native for a student). Teachers should report on this diversity and discuss the details individually to avoid misunderstandings and failures.
Test speediness plays an important role in the current discussion due to the necessity to predict the results and compare students’ possibilities. Furlano et al. admitted that “with both moderately and highly speeded tests, response time variations have a greater influence on accuracy” (153). Modern test developers begin to pay attention to the composition of standardized tests through the prism of speed, but most exams omit this information, raising new concerns and questions. Some students prefer to sacrifice the accuracy of answers to make sure to answer all questions within the established period. Others want to be confident in their answers but lack time to look through all questions. These differences in choices may have the same results (scores), but teachers know that the quality of such works varies. Borden-King et al. offered to investigate the requests for additional time for test-taking and additional points and identify individuals who may need some help with the content or dispositions (27). The worth of standardized testing should not be the speediness but accuracy to prepare smart graduates.
Regarding the connection between time, speed, and test results, educators, psychologists, and other stakeholders are obliged to think about accommodations that are favorable for students. Today, many students who were diagnosed with a learning disability or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are not eager to talk about their mental or behavioral problems aloud not to be discretized or oppressed by peers. Sometimes, they have certain problems, but they cannot apply for the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-5 (Furlano et al. 160). Thus, many conditions and personal characteristics that require additional time or decrease the speed of work remain poorly covered. Standardized tests do not focus on external factors and impacts but are based on common grounds and rules, questioning the appropriateness of assessment in a group with diverse students. Student knowledge and quick reaction are never the same, and this is what affects individuals who suffer or cope with test anxiety.
Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Applying Standardized Academic Assessment
Standardized tests are offered to all students on the same grounds, and their developers are not able to consider all internal and external factors that may affect the results. Still, modern students experience a variety of emotions and survive the events that define their abilities and attitudes toward the world. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex disorder that is diagnosed in people who have experienced a dangerous or shocking event. However, the symptoms of this condition may not be noticed for a long period or be chronic, challenging most human activities (Pereira et al. 507). A person survives a life-threatening event, might face its reminders from time to time or tries to avoid bad memories. Good sleep, a healthy lifestyle, and mood management are recommendations for young people to deal with PTSD. Some individuals follow these steps, and some need additional control and cooperation.
Biological and Demographic Factors
Students with PTSD symptoms cannot take sick leaves or postpone their education because this condition may not disappear with time. Thus, the common solution is to live with it and try to show good academic performance. PTSD patients should monitor their level of cortisol as this hormone shows the “circadian rhythm across the day” that regulates many processes in the body (Heissel et al. 3). If it is compromised, the quality of sleep lows, and the level of stress increases. Heissel et al. also admitted the relationship between demographic factors and stress, underlying that racial/ethnic minority children experience negative events more often compared to White children (2). As such, it is expected that Black students are more diagnosed with PTSD and sleep problems than White students. Although such conclusions are general and subjective, the correlation is evident. Standardized tests remain racially or ethically unbiased, meaning that, a priori, White students are less challenged during standardized testing in comparison to Black test-takers.
The evaluation of standardized test effectiveness should touch upon the presence or absence of PTSD symptoms and the possibility to cope with them. According to Heissel et al., the academic achievement gap emerges because of stress exposure differences and various biological systems (10). Some people are predisposed to experience anxiety at the genetic level, and some people have the ability to cope with stressful situations in a short period. PTSD symptoms may be drastically developed in one person and be insignificant in another person. All these differences are never taken into consideration during standardized testing that aims at assessing students equally. Thus, students may accumulate the same level of knowledge but demonstrate different test scores, proving the role of PTSD (Heissel et al. 10). Some teachers understand the uniqueness of the situation, while most test developers are not aware of such challenges and continue promoting standards in education.
History of PTSD and Standardized Tests
People might think that traumatic events and mental health conditions do not affect the level of student knowledge, and it is correct to maintain equal assessment conditions for all students. Still, the association between PTSD and academic achievement has been investigated during the last several decades. PTSD was revealed in 14% of students in the first semester and in 15% of students in the final semester, and these students demonstrated worsen results (Pereira et al. 510). Standardized tests show acute cognitive abilities of students, and high cortisol levels (PTSD- or stress-associated) challenge cognitive functioning (Heissel et al. 2). At the same time, one may remember from the history of standardized testing that academic assessment was closely related to the evaluation of the military before, during, and after the war (National Education Association). Military experiences provoke many PTSD cases and shape human life into “before” and “after.” Still, the value of standardized tests was great during the 1900s, decreasing the impact of mental health problems on test results.
Test-Taking Abilities and PTSD Symptoms
PTSD symptoms include intrusive thoughts and poor concentration on tasks because of hypervigilance to environmental threats and unpleasant interference. With time, students can notice problems with working memory and the inability to pay enough attention to specific tasks (Heissel et al. 4). Such symptomatology explains difficulties in completing cognitive assignments, applying logic, or using appropriate vocabulary. The number of wrong answers increases, and young people are unable to control their emotions and behaviors. They need more time to understand a question and give an answer. Instead of focusing on their academic performance, students are challenged by traumas (Pereira et al. 511). Thus, understanding PTSD symptoms plays an important role in standardized academic assessment because students have to work harder and differentiate between their current tasks and everyday concerns.
Impact of Standardized Testing on Profession and Career Choice
During the last several decades, people get interested in the impact of academic assessment on professional choice and the development of a future career. The use of standardized tests is explained by the necessity to check the level of students’ knowledge and their readiness to find practical application to their theoretical knowledge. However, controversies and debates emerge due to various attitudes and implementation methods. Some teachers admit that standardized tests are a waste of time that hardly complies with curriculum goals and poorly reflects students’ skills (Kinay and Ardıç 2289). Other educators believe that this assessment type effectively measures academic achievement on equal and fair conditions for all students who visit the same classroom (“Effects of Standardized Testing on Students & Teachers”). However, students struggle to meet test scores and achieve the desired goals (Borden-King et al. 24). Standardized admission criteria may vary, and it happens that a facility sets high requirements for entering and prevents potentially good employees from joining a team (Borden-King et al. 25). However, this reason is not the only one to recognize the impact of tests on a career.
When students choose their careers, they take into consideration different factors, including their interests, abilities, knowledge, and skills. When young people take standardized tests, they think about the necessity to achieve the required average and alienate from their personal benefits and the essence of education (“Top 7 Alternatives to Standardized Testing”). According to Borden-King et al., these tests lack a clear value of professional training and have no statistical correlation with performance (28). It seems that students do not understand what they want to achieve – a high score or a better interest in their future profession. The level of such damaged attitude toward the result is unpredictable, and students continue choosing careers where they can be more or less confident about their assessment results. This method of admission reduces the number of experts but prepares individuals who have a fast reaction, good organizational skills, and, simply, some luck to give the right answer.
Lack of Communication
Professional development and future careers depend greatly on how people can communicate and discuss different issues at various levels. Standardized testing is based on students’ choices to demonstrate their awareness of the necessary topic, and no interpersonal communication is observed. In addition to standardized tests, experts recommend such alternatives as creating portfolios or game-based assessments that show the level of professionalism through properly integrated communication skills (“Top 7 Alternatives to Standardized Testing”). When the time to take a test comes, educators and parents try to give some explanations that it is just another broad indicator (Starr). However, not all schools and stakeholders follow the same rule and reject a strategy of open and honest communication. The outcomes of this omission are test anxiety, lowered self-esteem, or perceived difficulty (Embse et al. 491). People of any age should have access to communication, ask questions, and share opinions to prove they deserve a chance for a good career. If standardized tests do not give such opportunities, their impact on the future profession is questionable and ineffective.
Today, the number of standardized tests continues to grow in different areas. At schools or colleges, educators have to follow policies and norms and regularly organize tests to follow student progress and academic performance. New assessment systems are designed to score as many data points as possible and capture the development trend (Cai 36). No recognition of human qualities and personalities is observed when taking tests. Students stop thinking about their real knowledge but concentrate on what can be expected from the test. Borden-King et al. underline that effective assessments should include multiple opportunities where cooperation, exchange of experience, and specific knowledge are revealed (26). However, when students are anxious about getting high scores, they undermine their effectiveness as future employees. They do not think about contributions to their profession but about appropriateness to the field where they want to work. Standardized testing should encourage students to know more and demonstrate high-quality accomplishment but not provoke negative or ambiguous emotions and results.
Tests and Improvement
Finally, the relationship between standardized testing, careers, and student performance should be analyzed in terms of improvement that can or cannot be achieved. Many researchers raise their concerns about such tests and the goal of improving the education and professional readiness of individuals (Benjamin and Pashler 14; Borden-King et al. 27). Student assessments need to address the areas of knowledge that are constantly enhanced during the course. Test-takers may see what they know and what they can improve with time. Still, if the only test defines if a person fit or does not fit the chosen career without additional options or recommendations, such evaluation does not bring benefits to the current system of education and American society in general.
People want to be sure that their education brings positive results to their professional growth and personal development. When students take standardized tests, they make certain preparations, refresh their memory, and observe if they achieve some progress. If a test brings nothing more except panic, anxiety, and negative attitudes, the essence of such an evaluation system has to be re-examined. Educators and parents are responsible for supporting and cooperating with students to explain the importance of testing and the goals of this process. Students choose their future careers, relying on their interests and personal qualities. This research proves that standardized testing limits students in many ways, discourages creativity and a variety of learning environments, and damages mental well-being. Compared to the observations made a decade ago, the current educators have already recognized the ambiguity of such tests and think about alternatives that help assess students properly. Future implications of this research should make people look closer at the situation and improve the content and conditions of testing for students’ good. When a young person stops feeling anxiety or fear about a coming exam, better results and scores will be observed.
Benjamin, Aaron S., and Hal Pashler. “The Value of Standardized Testing: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology.” Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, 2015, pp. 13–23. SAGE Publications.
Borden-King, Lisa, et al. “Should Standardized Testing Define Our Profession?” Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 101, no. 6, 2020, pp. 24-28. Sage Publications.
Cai, Li. “Standardized Testing in College Admissions: Observations and Reflections.” Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, vol. 39, no. 3, 2020, pp. 34–36. National Council on Measurement in Education.
“Effects of Standardized Testing on Students & Teachers: Key Benefits & Challenges.” School of Education, Web.
Embse, Nathaniel von der, et al. “Test Anxiety Effects, Predictors, and Correlates: A 30-Year Meta-Analytic Review.” Journal of Affective Disorder, vol. 227, 2018, pp. 483-493. Elsevier.
Furlano, Rosaria, et al. “Determining the Appropriateness of Extended Time Accommodations in Standardized Cognitive Ability Testing.” Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/ Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, vol. 53, no. 2, 2021, pp. 152-163. EBSCOhost.
Heissel, Jennifer A., et al. “Stress, Sleep, and Performance on Standardized Tests: Understudied Pathways to the Achievement Gap.” AERA Open, vol. 3, no. 3, 2017, p. 1-17. SAGE Publications.
Himelfarb, Igor. “A Primer on Standardized Testing: History, Measurement, Classical Test Theory, Item Response Theory, and Equating.” The Journal of Chiropractic Education, vol. 33, no. 2, 2019, pp. 151-163. The Association of Chiropractic Colleges.
Jouriles, Greg. “Here’s Why We Don’t Need Standardized Tests.” Education Week, Web.
Kinay, Ismail, and Tuncay Ardıç. “Investigating Teacher Candidates’ Beliefs about Standardized Testing.” Universal Journal of Educational Research, vol. 5, no. 12, 2017, pp. 2286-2293. Horizon Research Publishing.
Lotz, Christin, and Jörn R. Sparfeldt. “Does Test Anxiety Increase as the Exam Draws Near? – Students’ State Test Anxiety Recorded over the Course of One Semester.” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 104, 2017, pp. 397–400. Elsevier Ltd,
National Education Association. “The History of Standardized Testing in the United States.” National Education Association, Web.
Pereira, Juliana L., et al. ” Types of Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Academic Performance in a Population of University Students.” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 206, no. 7, 2018, pp. 507-512. Copyright Wolters Kluwer Health.
Putwai, David W., and Marc Pescod. “Is Reducing Uncertain Control the Key to Successful Test Anxiety Intervention for Secondary School Students? Findings From a Randomized Control Trial.” School Psychology Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 2, 2018, pp. 283-292. Educational Publishing Foundation.
Spielberger, Charles D., et al. “The Nature and Treatment of Test Anxiety.” Emotions and Anxiety: New Concepts, Methods, and Applications, edited by Marvin Zuckerman and Charles D. Spielberger, Psychology Press, 2015, pp. 317-344.
Starr, Joshua P. “Standardized Testing: Making the Best of It.” Phi Delta Kappan, 2020, Web.
“Top 7 Alternatives to Standardized Testing.” University of the People, Web.