Factors Causing the Development of PTSD
The phenomenon of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is traditionally defined as a “clinical disorder that may result after a person experiences a traumatic event” (Tsao, 2010, p. 204) and typically occurs in people, who have suffered major trauma. Despite being fraught with numerous consequences and enhanced by a variety of factors, PTSD can be dealt with efficiently once the evidence-based approach is applied. Therefore, for addressing PTSD, a nurse must make sure that a connection between the nurse and the patient has been created and that a patient-centered therapy can be adopted.
When it comes to defining the factors that contribute to the development of PTSD, one must admit that the specified phenomenon is rather self-explanatory. To be more exact, a severe trauma suffered by a patient can be viewed as the primary factor contributing to the development of PTSD. Although trauma remains a major factor for a significant amount of instances of PTSD invariably, the disorder can also be spurred by exposure to the factors such as environmental threats, the history of family violence, and gender. For instance, according to the recent statistical data, women are more exposed to the threat of PTSD (55% PTSD instances among women compared to 33% in men (How common is PTSD? 2015)). As far as family issues are concerned, even the lack of support from the people that are close to the patient may spur the development of PTSD. Likewise, a drinking problem, age, education, and the severity of recent changes in one’s life are likely to trigger the development of PTSD (Bush, 2014).
Clinical Manifestations of PTSD
The process of identifying PTSD may be viewed as somehow convoluted, as the disorder is enhanced by a variety of factors. Therefore, some of the symptoms may be downplayed significantly, whereas others may become exaggerated. However, the disorder typically manifests itself in the form of intrusive memories, negativity, avoidance, and a significant change in emotional reactions.
To be more exact, the person suffering from PTSD is very likely to suffer from recurrent and rather painful memories about the traumatic event that has led to the development of the disorder in question. As a result, the patient may.
However, the patient may also be especially unwilling to purposefully recall the traumatic event that has led to the development of PTSD as well as generally reluctant to address any issues or themes related to the traumatic event in question. Although the specified behavioral pattern is quite understandable, it is still viewed as harmful to the overall mental stability of the patient and, therefore, needs to be recognized as an obvious manifestation of PTSD and addressed correspondingly.
Finally, changes in the emotional reaction patterns deserve to be brought up as a graphic symptom of PTSD. To be more exact, emotional patterns such as excessive irritability, emotional detachment, instability, and a complete lack of enthusiasm can be observed in patients with PTSD. Researches show that the specified disruptions in the emotional experiences of the patient may even lead to suicidal thoughts.
Treatment and Therapies
As has been stressed above, a patient is often unwilling to recall the traumatic events that caused the further development of PTSD. Herein the key problem with addressing the issue lies; because of the vagueness of symptoms, the identification of the appropriate strategy for managing the emotional issues that the patient is experiencing is rather difficult. However, it is often suggested that the trauma recollections appraisal along with the reinforcement of the patient’s feeling of personal safety, are the first two steps towards a successful therapy.
Professional Nursing Approach
From a perspective of a professional nurse, the identification of the factors that have led to the development of the PTSD problem must be viewed as the first stage of tending to the needs of the patient. Afterward, the evidence-based approach (EBP) should be undertaken to address the needs of the patient in a proper manner. Particularly, the adoption of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy should be viewed as the most sensible means of dealing with the issue. The choice of the approach was predetermined by the fact that EBP helps apply a particular theory to a specific case, therefore, creating premises for taking every unique feature of the patient and designing a unique intervention method. The use of cognitive behavior therapy, in its turn, can be justified by the fact that the patient will have to analyze the factors that trigger deviations in their behavior and identify the behavioral patterns that they will have to switch to integrate back into society successfully and recover from the disorder. The adoption of family therapy must also be viewed as a possible tool for solving the problem. Family support is a crucial factor in the patient’s recovery from PTSD (Berkowitz, Stover, & Marans, 2011); therefore, it I important that family members should provide the patient with the required assistance. Finally, appropriate medication must be prescribed; specifically, Venlafaxine and Mirtazapine should be considered an option (Jeffreys, 2015).
Berkowitz, S. J., Stover, C. S., & Marans, S. R. (2011). The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk Youth of Developing PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(6), 676–685.
Bush, S. S. (2014). Psychological assessment of veterans. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
How common is PTSD? (2015). Web.
Jeffreys, M. (2015). PTSD: National Center for PTSD. Web.
Tsao, J. W. (2010). Traumatic brain injury: A clinician’s guide to diagnosis, management, and rehabilitation. Washington, DC: Springer Science & Business Media