Anxiety is very similar to other diseases that people recognize as serious, such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. Anxiety disorders very common in countries like the USA. Anxiety is defined as a two-week period in which an individual feels depressed, sad, hopeless, unmotivated, or otherwise uninterested in life, and these feelings interfere with everyday activities. Depression, however, is treatable. Some side effects may include thinking difficulties, changes in how the patient feels and acts, and how they perform their daily activities. According to recent research, 3% and 5% of people suffer from major depression at any time.
The lifetime risk of developing anxiety disease is around 17%. Consequently, further research on anxiety, raising awareness, and educating the public about its existence and effects is critical. As a result, this paper focuses on the fundamental characteristics of anxiety and its theories and treatment options imperially supported.
This section focuses on understanding anxiety disorders thoroughly. Anxiety, like other infections, has different forms. The following are standard anxiety classification:
- Generalized anxiety disorder: is a chronic disturbance characterized by excessive worry and tension, even in minor cases.
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder; is a psychological disease described by repeated and unwanted considerations or practices (impulses). Washing, tallying, checking, or cleaning are examples of regular redundant practices used to stay away or kill over-the-top musings. Interestingly, playing these “ceremonies” provides transitory help and does not expand tension.
- Panic disorder; a nervousness issue described by repeated episodes of uncomfortable, severe chest problems, palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal cramp. Panic is an anxiety disorder.
- Post-traumatic disorder; is a type of anxiety disorder that can develop as a result of witnessing or going through a traumatic event or experience. Violence, natural disasters, accidents, and gunfights are examples of traumatic events that can lead to PTSD.
- Social anxiety; is a type of anxiety disorder with widespread nervousness and overconfidence. Social phobia can be limited to a single situation, such as fear of speaking in a formal or informal setting or public fear of eating or drinking. It can be so omnipresent that people experience symptoms almost always in public.
The main which was employed in data collection were peer review and secondary materials. I interviewed some of my peers on how they perceive anxiety, its possible causes and effects, and its theories. The answers they gave were constructive as they acted as a ground for the research. I also used secondary materials such as books, articles, and journals to develop the final findings of the research.
Primary Characteristics and Related Features of the Anxiety
One of anxiety disorder’s most common symptoms is worry. Anxiety caused by an anxiety disorder is disproportionate to causing events. It must cause anxiety for at least six months on most days and be challenging to be a symptom of a widespread anxiety disorder (Glue et al., 2018). It must also be severe and disruptive, making concentration and daily tasks difficult. People under 65 are at the highest risk of developing a widespread anxiety disorder, especially those with low socioeconomic status and high stress.
At the point when an individual is on edge, certain pieces of the sensory system become over-burden, bringing about a course of impacts all through the body, like a hustling heart, sweat-soaked palms, shaking hands, and a dry mouth. These manifestations seem because your mind trusts it has recognized peril and has arranged your body to react to it (Kirsch et al., 2020). At the point when you need to run or battle, your body draws blood from your stomach-related framework to your muscles.
It likewise raises your pulse and makes your faculties more intense. While these impacts are advantageous when confronted with a genuine danger, they can be crippling when the dread is just in your mind. A few examinations likewise recommend that individuals with uneasiness issues can’t diminish their excitement as fast as individuals without tension issues, which implies they may encounter the impacts of nervousness for a more broadened time.
Disorders of Agitation
Restlessness is another common anxiety symptom, especially in children and adolescents. When someone has a problem, they’re often called ‘nervous’ or ‘anxious.’ In a 128-child study diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The study found that fear was responsible for 74 percent of the leading anxiety symptoms. Although anxiety does not affect anyone suffering from anxiety, it is a warning sign that doctors often look for when diagnosing. If you experience anxiety for more than six months, you may have an anxiety disorder.
Mild fatigue is another symptom of anxiety disorder. This symptom may surprise some, as anxiety is often associated with hyperactivity or agitation. In some people, fatigue may precipitate an anxiety attack; in others, it may be chronic. It is unclear whether other common anxiety symptoms such as insomnia or muscle tension or linked to chronic anxiety attacks cause this fatigue. Fatigue, however, can be a symptom of depression or other illnesses, implying that fatigue is insufficient to diagnose an anxiety disorder.
Many people who suffer from anxiety report difficulty concentrating. According to a study, more than two-thirds of 157 children and adolescents with a generalized anxiety disorder had difficulty concentrating. Another study of 175 adults with the same disorder discovered that nearly 90% had trouble concentrating (Kirsch et al., 2020). The more anxious you are, the sadder you will be. According to some studies, anxiety can interfere with memory, which stores short-term information; this could explain why there is such a dramatic drop in performance during times of high anxiety. On the other hand, concentration problems can be a symptom of other conditions such as attention deficit disorder or depression and thus are insufficient to diagnose an anxiety disorder.
Most people with anxiety disorders are also irritable. In a recent survey of above six thousand people, about ninety percent of people infected with widespread anxiety were diagnosed with extreme irritation during their worst (Glue et al., 2018). Young adults and GAD middle-aged adults reported being more than twice as irritable in everyday life. Irritability is a common anxiety symptom due to high levels of excitement and excessive worry.
Difficulties Falling or Staying Asleep
Anxiety disorders are linked to sleep problems. The two most common issues are night-time awakenings and difficulty sleeping (24 percent – trusted source). According to some studies, childhood insomnia may be linked to anxiety later in life (Glue et al., 2018). A 20-year study of about a thousand children reported that childhood insomnia could be linked to two-thirds of the increased risk of developing anxiety.
Research Supported Casual Theories
Psychoanalytic theory is a theory of personality created by Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis. According to this theory, the individual is governed by entirely invisible forces and motivations guided by conscious, rational thought processes. According to Freud, the mind consists of three components that interact at different levels and then produce behavior (Richey et al., 2019). These three components are identity, ego, and superego. He states that people are driven by sexual and death drives.
Behavioural/ Learning Theory
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are two types of conditioning. The endless combination of a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus that produces a new behavior is called classical conditioning (Jordan et al., 2017). Classical conditioning can also be used in the classroom by teachers. Teachers can help students overcome fear and anxiety by creating a positive atmosphere in the classroom. Combining a scary situation with a pleasant environment (for which they have been prepared) helps students overcome their fears and learn new associations.
Functional conditioning uses an approach of reward and punishment to eliminate and create new behaviors. Positive reinforcement is used to encourage the desired behavior. When students behave well in class, the teacher can reward them with a prize or praise. Punishment is a technique used to reduce undesirable behavior. For example, positive punishment is often used in the classroom. If a student is repeatedly late, a warning is given.
Psychological theories deal with the interaction between people and their associated thoughts, feelings, and behavior. It is also called the study of individuals in groups. The interactions described may be fundamental or imagined (Richey et al., 2019). These theories are, therefore, more concerned with the social context in which human development is studied.
Phenomenology refers to the study of ‘phenomena. It is classified into Interpretive Phenomenology and Phenomenology of emotions. Interpretive Phenomenology Analysis (IPA) explores how candidates experience their social and personal environment (Jordan et al., 2017). On the other hand, the Phenomenology of emotions aims to be open to what is happening, developing a relationship between being and doing, between how you are and how you feel.
It is the propensity to overestimate the likelihood of risk. Patients with nervousness issues frequently envision the absolute worst circumstances and stay away from circumstances they see as hazardous, like groups, statures, or social connection.
Empirically Supported Treatment Options and Their Relative Effectiveness
Nervousness problems are treatable in an assortment of ways. A few groups lean toward common medicines, while others favor prescription or psychotherapy. The seriousness of the manifestations, be that as it may, just as the clinician’s expert judgment, decide treatment.
Medication on Prescription
Antidepressants are as often as potential embraced GAD treatment solutions. The three most common classes of antidepressants are tricyclic, serotonin, and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and SSRIs direct serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Moreover, Tricyclic may take weeks or months to complete bodywork, requiring tirelessness while keeping things under control to treat results. They can also have contrary results for specific individuals (Bandelow et al., 2017). Before trying another medicine, talk consistently with your primary care physician and gauge upsides and downsides. Restless patients can be endorsed beta-blockers, commonly used to treat heart problems and decrease the vibe of palpitations.
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Psychotherapy
Intellectual conduct treatment (CBT) is perhaps the most mainstream kind of psychotherapy. Conversing with a certified analyst (or another clinician, guide, or advisor) about your psychological wellness issues is a protected and successful treatment strategy that permits you to investigate your considerations and learn new adapting methodologies (Ströhle et al., 2018). An expert will likewise go over the particulars of your treatment and how these procedures could profit you. Intellectual, social treatment (CBT) is a kind of psychotherapy that should be possible separately, in a gathering, or with a therapist.
Meditation and Exercise
Different techniques for recovering control of your nervousness that you can use in your extra time can be fused into your day-by-day schedule. Quite possibly, the best strategies are regular exercise (Bandelow et al., 2017). As well as delivering endorphins that can improve your mindset and real prosperity, it can urge you to get outside or begin going to the rec center. Contemplation and yoga-like exercises can likewise help decrease pressure and nervousness.
Alter Your Daily Schedule
Different changes you can make to your day-by-day schedule incorporate diminishing your caffeine and smoking utilization (the two can cause tension manifestations in specific individuals) and eating better to improve your physical and emotional well-being. It is essential to consider yourself to lay the preparation for better progress in an assortment of zones and advance better propensities and mentalities.
Have A Solid Support System in Place
Ensure you have a strong, emotionally supportive network surrounded by people you trust. Extreme tension, profound unrest to be analyzed as a turmoil, can fundamentally affect your ability to look after connections. While staying away from specific individuals is essential to monitor pressure, maintaining strong ties can be an incredible way to reduce pressure (Ströhle et al., 2018). Having individuals go for help when you need it can cause you to feel upheld enough to defeat your psychological wellness issues.
In any event, make little progress, especially on awful days when you may feel considerably more alone and pushed than expected. When you are anxious, your interests can be eased by talking to someone via telephone, face-to-face, text, or web. By giving up or asking someone you trust to help you understand things from an improved perspective, you can lessen pressure.
GAD Navigates Entirely Autonomously
Online therapy has all the features of being a powerful therapy for manifestations of nervousness, as evidenced by development. Analysts found that online psychological, social treatment (CBT) diminished the tension and dread of members in an examination in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. As the investigation indicates, these discoveries are reliable, with different reports that focus on online treatment successfully address common mental problems (Bandelow et al., 2017). CBT is a famous type of treatment for managing meddlesome negative musings, welcomed by confident circumstances. Online treatment ensures a reliable approach to GAD and other psychological wellness issues. Besides, online treatment designs often join advising and various assets, such as work-help, classes, and workshops.
In summary, anxiety disorders present themselves differently, with different signs that many people may not be aware of. Therefore, it is advisable to always be keen on your health because anxiety is not a very common experience; it is an illness. The theories developed with people such as Freud may help us understand anxiety better and seek treatment appropriately.
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