In his book titled Educational Research: planning, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research, John W. Creswell gives an extensive explanation on how to conduct educational research. Creswell (2011) gives a clear outline on how to read and evaluate research studies. This paper uses the guidelines outlined in Creswell’s book to research cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) maintains strong empirical and scientific evidence of efficacy for the treatment of addiction. CBT is a form of psychotherapeutic treatment that looks at how the client’s thoughts impact his or her feelings and behaviors (Pamela, 2012). While the etiology of addictions is often regarded as a biological process, it can also be understood as learned behavior from a CBT perspective. This paper endeavors to highlight the development of substance-induced mood disorder about the concepts of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning theory. Furthermore, this paper will evaluate why addictions counselors need to use CBT in the management of their clients, and the influence of CBT on addiction treatment regimes.
Substance-related disorders are disorders that arise when an individual overuses a given substance. This often leads to maladaptive behaviors, which are manifested by several symptoms that interfere with an individual’s usual functioning within 12 months. The most common symptoms of a substance-related disorder include withdrawal symptoms, declined life functioning, burning desire to stop using the substance, and ingestion of large quantities of the substance in question (Pamela, 2012). Substance-induced mood disorder is one of the most common substance-related disorders. This disorder is characterized by disturbance in an individual’s mood owing to the overuse of a psychoactive drug.
According to the classical conditioning learning model, “a stimulus (conditioned stimulus) signals the occurrence of a second stimulus (unconditioned stimulus)” (Pamela, 2012, p.3). The unconditioned stimulus is biologically significant and elicits unconditioned response. Thus, “a stimulus that stimulates drug administration or ingestion may eventually arouse a conditioned physiological response that mimics the effects of the ingested drug” (Pamela, 2012, p.3). Eventually, this phenomenon causes drug tolerance. As a result, the drug user increases the quantity he or she consumes so as to feel its effects. This eventually leads to addiction. Addiction is characterized by substance-related disorders like substance-induced mood disorders.
On the other hand, operant conditioning learning model involves a situation whereby an individual’s behavior becomes modified by its consequences (Pamela, 2012). Thus, an individual’s behavior may be altered in terms of strength, form or frequency. Contrary to the classical conditioning model, this model deals with the modification of voluntary behavior. Operant conditioning is characterized by two main tools that include reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement is a consequence that heightens the frequency of a given behavior. Reinforcement is believed to be the key driving force for addiction. As mentioned earlier, addiction is characterized by substance-related disorders like substance-induced mood disorders.
Furthermore, the development of substance-induced mood disorder can be viewed from the perspective of the social learning theory. Social learning theory suggests that people learn within a social context. This theory is manifested in the form of modeling and observational learning. This theory also holds that “a person’s behavior is shaped by one’s characteristics and the environment” (Pamela, 2012, p. 6). The modeling process as a manifestation of the social learning theory entails several steps. They include attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. This theory suggests that behavior influences the motivation of people to engage in that particular behavior. In addition, this theory indicates that the surrounding in which people live influence one’s behavior. Thus, a combination of psychological factors and social (environmental) factors play a significant role in shaping one’s behavior. Drug addiction, may occur as a result of the environment that an individual lives.
Several interventions have been formulated to manage substance-induced mood disorders. Treatment interventions that are used in the management of substance-induced mood disorders need to be effective and tolerable. CBT is of significant help in the management of individuals with addiction. According to Mumma (2011), cognitive-behavioral case formulations refer to the ideographic theory of an individual and the situation of one’s life. This form of cognitive therapy enables counselors to evaluate the behavior problems and distress constructs of their clients. Mumma (2011) notes that this causal model constitutes variables like beliefs and thoughts that are believed to trigger and maintain an individual’s distress or dysfunction. Munna (2011) argues that CBT helps develop an intraindividual statistical prediction rationale that has the merits of actuarial prediction. CBT also ensures that specific issues and life circumstances of greatest relevance to an individual are addressed. Deepa, Paula, and Uhlenhuth (2011, p. 59) argue that “CBT has a long term protective effect. CBT has a considerable advantage over medication management of addiction, as patients often relapse when they inconsistently follow their medications”.
This paper has found out that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) maintains strong empirical and scientific evidence of efficacy for treatment of addiction. This form of psychotherapeutic treatment looks at how the client’s thoughts impact his or her feelings and behaviors. Furthermore, substance-related disorders are disorders that arise when an individual overuses a given substance. This often leads to maladaptive behaviors, which are manifested by several symptoms that interfere with an individual’s usual functioning within a 12 month period. However, “CBT has a considerable advantage over medication management of addiction, as patients often relapse when they inconsistently follow their medications” (Deepa, Paula, & Uhlenhuth, 2011, p. 60).
According to Creswell (2011), a well-researched topic requires the use of up-to-date information. Such information can be searched using various online databases. Like in this case, the articles were got from EBSCO. The quality of articles can be gauged from the writing experience of the authors. Creswell (2011) argues that it is important to have a good understanding of the authors of the articles one uses to support his or her thesis. Thus, Creswell (2011) suggests that the researcher should evaluate the writing experience of those authors who authored the articles used. Most up-to-date journal articles provide such information. In addition, Creswell (2011) recommends that researchers should use the latest peer-reviewed journal articles to support their theses. This paper has employed Creswell’s advice.
Cresewell, J. (2011). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New York: Pearson.
Deepa, N, Paula, L, and Uhlenhuth, E. (2011). Review of the long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy compared to medications in panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 17(2), 58-64.
Mumma, G. (2011) Validity issues in cognitive-behavioral case formulation. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27(1), 29-49.
Pamela, M. (2012). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Cambridge Online Journals, 1, 1- 10.