Experience of Trauma from Child Maltreatment

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Author/
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Aim of study/paper Type of study/ research design IV/ Covariates/Mediators/Moderators DV/ Outcome Main and secondary findings Strengths
Bolton, J. et al. (2017). The study focuses on exploring the connection between early-life stress and later behavioral outcomes, involving altering the hippocampus and subsequent memory defects, as well as anhedonia. It compares animals models of caregiving to human one, using it as a point of reference. Review Mammals, early life stress, anhedonia, behavioral disturbances. Stress has enormous influence on the brain, that is particularly vulnerable in its developing stages in children. Thus, early life stress, such as maltreatment, has serious effects on the child’s neurological structure. A test on maternal separation on postnatal day 9 leads to improvement of memory, while the same test showed opposite results on day 4. In rodents, as in humans, maternal role is vital to a normal development of the child or pup. Intermittent maternal separation “decreases the quantity of maternal care” and leads to intermittent stress (p. 134). Using of “standardized cognitive and emotional tests” data conducted on rodents to explore later-life consequences of child maltreatment.
Clemens, V. et al. (2019) To assess whether the long-term consequences of household dysfunction are mediated by child maltreatment as well as various dysfunctions affecting the child facing complications in adulthood; Cohort study Mental illnesses, types of household dysfunction Household dysfunction and as a result, child maltreatment are the determining factors of later developing mental disorders and toxic behavioral patterns The hypothesis was verified – child maltreatment was mediated by household dysfunction The child’s health – mental and physical – was mediated fully or partly by maltreatment due to household dysfunction A sample of German population was obtained from a demographic consulting company; to ensure the accuracy of results, the sample was divided into 5160 private households
Crum, K. I. & Moreland, A. D. (2017). Accesses the relationship between parental stress and child abuse, as well as the ways parental stress affected the child’s mental health consequences at various stages of development, including long-term ones. Cohort study Parental stress, child abuse potential Overall, the study confirmed the findings of previous research, finding that “parental stress was consistently linked” with to potential abuse of their children, which, in turns, was linked to a child developing adverse mental outcomes. Contrary to expectations, child aggression was not mediated by caregiver’s abuse potential. Greater abuse potential by a caregiver was directly associated with the lack of child’s social competence. Usage of structural equation model.
Currie, J. & Widom, C. S. (2010). Examines the economic well-being of subjects of childhood trauma long into adulthood; Cohort study Subjects with a history of childhood maltreatment or neglect proved to be less likely to have less education, a skilled job, own a bank account, a vehicle or a home The results showed a bigger likehoodof the participants with experience of childhood trauma to be economically stable, not a direct influence Female subjects were influenced by their childhood trauma more than their male counterparts. During the interviews the participants were blind to the purpose of the study and unaware of the abused/non-abused delineation, which ensured accurate samples
Dannlowski, U. et al. (2012). To investigate the neurobiological underpinnings between child maltreatment and the development of PTSD and depression in adulthood; Imaging study Psychiatric disorders Childhood maltreatment leads to remarkable structural and functional changes in the brain, which in turn leads to the higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood The decrease of gray matter in subjects with a history of maltreatment A strong connection between amygdala responsiveness to negative facial expressions and reduced hippocampal volumes with previously experienced childhood maltreatment Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (method for eliciting responses to fearful facial expressions) and voxel-based morphometry
Godinet, M. T. et al. (2014). To analyze the trajectory of child behavior problems
as a result of maltreatment and assess the role of race and gender;
Cohort-study Gender and race The race was not proven to modify the relationship between child’s maltreatment and their behavioral problems. Girls experienced a more pronounced impact of maltreatment over time. Boys experienced a decrease in the impact over time. Based on data from the Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN)
Johnson, R. M. et al. (2015). Examines mental health-related outcomes of childhood maltreatment as well as images of violence witnessed at a young age. Article Abuse, violence, mental health The study found a direct association between early exposure to sights of violence as well as experience of being maltreated by the caregivers with later development of mental disorders and social deviation behaviors. Child self-reports indicated higher numbers of children being exposed to violence (77%), while caregiver report indicated that 46% of children were only affected by moderate levels of violence. Both exposure to neighborhood and family violence and maltreatment affect the child’s mental health negatively. The study is longitudinal, utilizing a sample of population and not a clinic;
Usage of MANOVA & ANOVA models of analysis.
Lee, R. D., & Chen, J. (2017) a) To study the influence of childhood adversity on adult mental health and alcohol behaviors

b) To understand whether adult negative behaviors vary by sex, ethnicity, and race;

Cohort study (or sample) Race/ethnicity and sex Adverse childhood experiences impacted depression and excessive alcohol consumption among men and women in the same fashion

b)

Non-Hispanic blacks who experienced child abuse were three times more likely to heavy drinking than non-Hispanic blacks who did not experience it Child abuse contributed to the risk of heavy drinking among Hispanics Used 60,598 interviews from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
System

Real sampling and observation

Lewis, T. et al. (2016) To compare the behavioral problems of those with the history of sexual abuse and those with no sexual abuse; Qualitative study Age, sexual abuse, gender Children who suffered from sexual abuse had more behavioral problems that those who were maltreated without abuse Problems were more significant for sexually abused boys than girls Behavioral problems increased with age Data drawn from a number of respectable sources
Milojevich, H. M., Norwalk, K. E., &Sheridan, M. A. (2019). To assess the effects of exposure to child abuse and neglect on the participants’ mental health; Cohort-study Race Greater use of regulation strategies was associated with being African American. White and other races reported worse total regulation. Whites were more likely to use avoidant strategies. Used data from the Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN)
Nemeroff, C. (2016) To summarize the biological alterations associated with childhood maltreatment; Literature review Psychiatric and medical disorders Negative early life experiences can influence the development of the nervous system Maltreatment contributes to adverse changes in neurotransmission Child maltreatment contributes to emotional vulnerability Supported by grants for the NIH
Norman R.E. et al. (2012) To provide better coverage on the topic of long-term consequences of child maltreatment A systematic review; meta-analysis. Psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, suicidal tendencies, risky sexual behavior A causal relationship was found during the process of this research – instances of childhood maltreatment had a profound impact on the development of a wide range of mental disorders later in life. A “dose-response relationship” was found: children that experienced a severe form of maltreatment were, subsequently, at greater risk of developing mental/physical health problem than those with less severe CM experiences. Physical abuse at childhood was a significant factor in increasing the odds of the individual having an alcohol/substance abuse as an adult. Employs such datasets as EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO; Causality was determined via Bradford Hill criteria.
Odhayani, A. A., Watson, W. J. & Watson, L. (2013). Discussion of emotional and behavioral consequences of childhood abuse to inform the practicing clinicians to understand and recognize the problem when they encounter it in their practice. Clinical Review Behavioral deviations, disordered psychological development. Childhood maltreatment proved to have a direct influence on further development of a child psychologically and socially. It is a cause of many deviations and dysfunctions that individuals struggle with later in life. The general condition of a child might be the indicator of abuse – such as withdrawal, or clinging to strangers. Signs of physical injuries may not only show on parts of the body typical for physical abuse, but around the genitals and eyes, which were done by the child themselves. Usage of data from a variety of sources: MEDLine, PsycINFO,
EMBASE, and CINAHL.
Sheats, K. J. et al. (2018) To identify disparities related to violence experienced by young blacks in the U.S.; Cohort study Race/ethnicity Young blacks, compared with
young whites were found to be at disproportionately high
risk of violence
Black participants who had adverse childhood experiences were more likely to report frequent mental distress and heavy drinking Blacks subjected to child abuse developed coronary disease more frequently than whites Utilizes four independent data sets
Strathearn, L. & e al. (2020). To integrate results from Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy to understand direct associations of particular types of maltreatment with their long-term consequences. Summary Maltreatment types, age, race, marital status, education Overall, childhood maltreatment resulted in a wide array of physical, psychological, behavioral, and social developmental deviations – this review only explored it further, naming particular deviations for each type. The observed notion was that emotional abuse alone or in combination with neglect led to far more adverse outcomes than other types of maltreatment. Risky sexual behavior is not linked to any particular type of child abuse, but rather constitutes a prevalent consequence in most types of abuse. Using the results of a cohort study by Mater-University that spanned over 20 years; thus, providing rich and cohesive data for further analysis.
Taylor, J. et al. (2016). Exemplifying a strong connection between experienced childhood trauma and chronic illnesses development later in life Article Child abuse, physical chronic diseases Childhood maltreatment affects society in a number of aspects: in public health sphere, in economic sphere, as the costs for medical treatment are high and CM tends to occur in low-income families, thus depleting them of income further. The consequences of CM cannot be fully cured. An individual with a history of childhood maltreatment imposes a risk for future generations of their family, as the consequences of CM affect parenting behaviors directly CM impacts the health of an individual via two pathways: due to the usage of coping mechanisms that affect the health negatively, as well as exposure to high levels of stress that affect the health and well-being of an individual directly. Takes references from multiple credible studies and gives a well-rounded overview of the CM, exemplifies the magnitude of the problem
Vachon, D. D. et al. (2015). Compares the longitudinal effects of different child maltreatment types, such as physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect; Cohort study Physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect Different types of childhood maltreatment have equal psychological and psychiatric consequences, and show equally both in boys and girls who experienced it. Treatments aimed at specific types of childhood maltreatment experiences are less effective than those designed to prevent early changes in neurobiological structure of a child’s brain Child’s sexual abuse is one type of childhood mistreatment that is usually accompanied (89% of cases) with other types of CM; thus, it becomes hard to distinguish the effects sexual CM and non-sexual types of CM produce in a child. Using Child Report (Children’s Depression Inventory), and direct Peer Reports from children evaluating the characteristics of their peers
Widom, C. S. et al. (2012) To examine the long-term consequences of neglect for children of different Races; Cohort study Race/ethnicity, age Neglected black children were two times more likely to be arrested for violence than black who did not experience neglect Black children demonstrated more anxiety and dysthymia than other races and ethnicities Hispanic children compared to other participants showed an increased risk for alcohol problems Used interviews of 1,039 individuals
Yampolskaya, S., Chuang, E., & Walker, C. (2019). To study the trajectories of substance use among children and adolescents with maltreatment experiences; Cohort-study Age, gender, race Hispanic children and youth had an initial level of substance use, which was substantially higher than among other races. Black participants showed lower baseline levels of substance use. Black participants also demonstrated an increase in substance use over time. Based on the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being
Substance Use & Misuse 3 (NSCAW II).

Annotated Bibliography

Bolton, J., Molet, J., Ivy, A., & Baram, T. Z. (2017). New insights into early-life stress and behavioral outcomes. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 14, 133-139. Web.

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The present study aims to understand the mechanisms behind long-lasting consequences of early-life stress exposure. The researchers accomplish that by comparing the results of a number of cognitive and emotional tests conducted on rodents, modeled after human maltreatment or neglect. Some of the results were unexpected: such as varying postnatal day when practicing maternal separation (MS) mattered significantly for the outcome it produced on a neurological structure of the pup. Another one, forced-swim test (FST) showed great results as to exposing memory impairment being strongly associated with early-life stress.

Clemens, V., Berthold, O., Witt, A., Sachser, C., Brähler, E., Plener, P. L. & Fegert, J. M. (2019). Child maltreatment is mediating long-term consequences of household dysfunction in a population representative sample. European Psychiatry, 58, 10–18. Web.

This research is an assessment of whether various forms of household dysfunction such as parental substance abuse, mental disorders, violence against the mother, and incarceration of a family member mediate child maltreatment. Moreover, the study is aimed at examining if these dysfunctions produce further mental and physical health complications of the child later in life. As a result, a direct link between household dysfunction, child maltreatment and future negative consequences on the child’s health was found.

Crum, K. I., & Moreland, A. D. (2017). Parental stress and children’s social and behavioral outcomes: The role of abuse potential over time. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(11), 3067-3078. Web.

The study explores the paradigm of parental stress and its direct influence on the child’s psychological and physical development due to maltreatment often being subsequent to parental stress. It explores connections between parental stress and abuse potential through panel analysis of self-reports and after therapy intervention. The results showed that parental stress and anxiety/withdrawal were indeed interconnected. However, for instance, child aggression was independent from abuse potential and parental stress. Thus, the study sheds light on many individual associations between distinct behavioral deviations and parental abuse potential.

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Currie, J., & Widom, C. (2010). Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect on adult economic well-being. Child Maltreatment, 15(2), 111–120. Web.

This study explores the quality of economic aspect of the subjects of childhood maltreatment who are in their adulthood. The authors suggest an idea that previously experienced childhood adversity may lead the individuals to be less likely to pursue higher education levels, or a skillful job and overall economic security. It proves the hypothetical suggestion that people with a history of maltreatment are less likely to establish a sufficient economic future for themselves. The research also finds differences in gender in the severity of effect of childhood maltreatment: women tend to be more deeply affected than men.

Dannlowski U., Stuhrmann A., Beutelmann, V., Zanzger., P., Lenzen T, Grotegerd D., Domschke K., Hohoff, C, Ohrmann P., Bauer J., Lindner C., Postert C, Konrad C., Arolt V, Heindel, W., Suslow T., & Kugel H. (2012.) Limbic scars: Long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment revealed by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 71(4), 286-293. Web.

This study focuses specifically on the problem of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression development as a result of experienced childhood adversity and maltreatment. To examine the neurological effects of childhood maltreatment, the researchers conducted a brain screening during a test in order to locate abnormalities in the brain structure, as well as Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to identify their experiences. The abnormalities include general decrease in gray matter mass, and a positive response in amygdala during the functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) test. As a result, the study was able to locate a direct influence of childhood trauma on later development of psychiatric disorders, such as depressive states and PTSD later in life.

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Godinet, M. T., Li, F., & Berg, T. (2014). Early childhood maltreatment and trajectories of behavioral problems: Exploring gender and racial differences. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(3), 544–556.

This research paper centers on examining the trajectories of child maltreatment, whether or not early childhood maltreatment (before the age of four) affected the long-term behavioral deviations. The study also examines the role of gender and ethnicity in the rates of reported cases of child maltreatment and their long-term consequences. Godinet is a credible author and a professor at the University of Hawaii and has conducted numerous studies in the field of Sociology concerning the representation of Pacific Islanders and child welfare. The current study found a direct link between gender and the appearance of earlier internalizing problems among female children; boys were associated with externalizing problem behavior. The race was also found to be affecting the results, with African-Americans being the most affected racial group. Thus, the study is very closely related to the topic of discussion and can be considered very relevant.

Johnson, R. M., Kotsh, J. B., Catllier, D.J., Winsor, J. R., Dufort, V., Hunter, W., & Jackson, L. A. (2002). Adverse behavioral and emotional outcomes from child abuse and witnessed violence. Child Maltreatment, 7(3), pp. 179-186. Web.

The research differs from the others in the scale that it views the problem of childhood maltreatment – it explores the boundaries of factors that affect the child’s psychological development when witnessed on a regular basis. These include neighborhood violence, such as the child witnessing arrests or fighting and household violence – such as abuse towards to mother. Due to these factors, child victimization becomes of a much greater possibility. Having studied child self-reports as well as caregiver reports, the research team was able to locate the direct link between early experiences of violence along with maltreatment with later developing mental and social deviations.

Lee, R. D., & Chen, J. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and excessive alcohol use: Examination of race/ethnicity and sex differences. Child abuse & neglect, 69, 40-48.

The topic studied in this paper is even narrower than the previously mentioned studies concerning a particular problem or demographic. Here, Lee examines and evaluates the connection between alcohol abuse and previous early maltreatment. The findings include similar results in all groups under discussion, all genders and all ethnic groups show similar behaviors (with the exception of binge drinking). However, the research confirmed the trend that the female population is greatly affected by the incidences of abuse at an early age compared to the male population. However, in the course of the study, researchers uncovered some unanticipated results as well – that race and ethnicity were, in fact, contributing to the problematic behavior of binge and heavy drinking. Therefore, the study could be helpful in establishing new connections between childhood maltreatment experiences and the cultural reference of an individual. Lee can also be considered to be a reliable author, with several publications in the field of disease prevention and control. This research paper could prove to help provide instances of deviant behavior consequent to childhood trauma, which is one of the main questions of the current research.

Lewis, T., McElroy, E., Harlaar, N., & Runyan, D. (2016). Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Child abuse & neglect, 51, 31-40.

This study was mainly concerned with comparing the long-term outcomes and consequences of children who experienced sexual abuse before the age of 18 and those who did not. The researchers also explored the affiliation of further behavioral complications with the gender of the victimized child, which makes this study partly relevant to our present research. It deals with a more specific topic; however, the researchers compare findings from groups of children with a history of CSA and without one but who still experienced maltreatment, which is particularly interesting. The result shows a growing trend for sexually-abused girls to increase internalizing problems with age, the pattern that does not occur so much with boys.

Milojevich, H. M., Norwalk, K. E., & Sheridan, M. A. (2019). Deprivation and threat, emotion dysregulation, and psychopathology: Concurrent and longitudinal associations. Development and Psychopathology, 31(3), 847–857.

The prime points of focus of this study are the way certain kinds of child maltreatment alter the longitudinal strategies of emotional regulations in then-adults. It “tests a conceptual model that distinguishes deprivation and threat as distinct forms of exposure with different pathways in psychopathology” (Milojevich, 2019). Milojevich is a credible, prolific researcher and a professional scholar with multiple publications in the field. The present study finds the hypothesized link between the deprivation of children at a young age and subsequent avoidance mechanism of emotional regulation later on. Girls were more affected than boys, and White Americans were more frequent to report emotion dysregulation than African-Americans. Although the subject of this particular study is relatively narrow, it still covers all the topics of interest for further research, and therefore, is a valuable source.

Nemeroff, C. B. (2016). Paradise lost: the neurobiological and clinical consequences of child abuse and neglect. Neuron, 89(5), 892-909.

The researcher in this review describes the effects of early maltreatment on neurobiological, endocrine, and various other systems in human biological structure. This study is relatively affiliated with the question of interest for our further research, despite the fact that it covers an entirely different area of complexities that arise consequent to child abuse. Nemeroff, being an experienced psychiatrist, still shows excellent expertise in this paper. A number of various aspects are covered by this research – from Genetics and Neurobiological complications at forming new brain patterns in patients with a history of abuse in their childhood to inadequate response to treatment in patients with depression or anxiety.

Norman R.E., Byambaa M., De R., Butchart A., Scott J., Vos T. (2012). The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med, 9, 11. 

This comprehensive study is remarkable in its width of subject matter. The researchers are examining a range of outcomes of child maltreatment – spanning from mental health problems to physical health damage, suicidal tendencies, and even inclination towards sexual risky behavior and prevalence of STIs among the studied demographic. The research covers topics not found anywhere else in the chosen references – along with earlier discussed ones, like substance abuse and mental health disorders after early exposure to various types of maltreatment. The results varied in prospective studies versus retrospective, thus providing quite unexpected findings. Many products coincided with the ones from other studies, which proves their legibility. The only thing research does not touch upon is the relationship between gender and race and childhood adversity experiences.

Odhayani, A. A., Watson, W. J., & Watson, L. (2013). Behavioral consequences of child abuse. Canadian Family Physician, 59(8), 831-836.

This article sums up an excessive number of studies that has been done on childhood maltreatment and abuse, additionally revealing the behavioral consequences that follow. The study poses itself as a guide for clinicians to be able to recognize the signs that child exhibits that indicate different forms of maltreatment – physical, emotional, sexual, and neglect. Summing up the findings of various researchers as well as using databases, the study confirms an undeniable influence of maltreatment on later development and life of a child, affecting nearly every aspect of it.

Sheats, K. J., Irving, S. M., Mercy, J. A., Simon, T. R., Crosby, A. E., Ford, D. C., Merrick, M. T., Annor, F. B., & Morgan, R. E. Debowska, A., & Boduszek, D. (2017). Child abuse and neglect profiles and their psychosocial consequences in a large sample of incarcerated males. Child Abuse & Neglect, 65, 266-277.

The particular problem that this research addresses is still the one directly related to the main topic of discussion – that is, the way exposure to abuse in early life affects the development of deviancies in an individual later in life. Having said that, what this research does not cover is the link between gender and racial affiliations and rates of child abuse in relation to these social groups. Instead, this study focuses on analyzing the numbers of experienced child abuse among the high-risk population, particularly incarcerated males. Debowska can be considered a trustful source, as her scholarship is concerned with studying violent behavior aimed at children and women. However, it is suitable to say that there are other instances of more relevant research studies on this list that provide a bigger picture of the problem at hand.

Strathearn, L., Giannotti, M., Millis, R., Kisely, S., Najman, J., & Abajobir, A. (2020). Long-term cognitive, psychological, and health outcomes associated with child abuse and neglect. Pediatrics, 146(4), 1-17. Web.

The aim of this article is to analyze cohort data from Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy in order to distinguish what maltreatment types produce specific outcomes. The researchers compared the data of 5,200 children from 14 to 21 with a recorded history of abuse. They found that psychological maltreatment, either physical or emotional had the biggest number of deviances later in life. Sexual abuse resulted in depression, PTSD, and early sexual activity, while emotional abuse “revealed increased odds of psychosis” as well as substance abuse. Other findings include cognitive delays and difficulties learning new information. In conclusion, present study does not establish direct causality, but finds neurological deviances that are linked to early-life stress.

Taylor J., Bradbury-Jones C., Lazenbatt A. & Soliman F. (2016). Child maltreatment: Pathway to chronic and long-term conditions? Journal of Public Health, 38(3), 426–431. Web.

This paper gives a broad overview of the problem of child maltreatment worldwide, while also examining it from a variety of angles. Among them, are the economic impact it makes on a single household as well as society, public health effects – both mental and physical. The article also outlines the preventive measures needed to be applied to society in order to provide everyone with an opportunity to maintain better health, and to battle the inhumane behavioral instances such as various types of cruelty against children.

Vachon, D. D., Krueger, R. F., Rogosch F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2015). Different forms of child maltreatment have comparable consequences among children from low-income families. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(11), 1135–1142. Web.

This unique study offers an alternative outlook on the long-term effects of experienced childhood maltreatment. The authors compared their findings in order to identify whether the effect of trauma differed depending on the gender of the victim and type of maltreatment experienced. Instead, they found that all types of childhood mistreatment have equal outcomes across genders. The researchers also concluded that maltreatment alters two broad behavioral types – internalizing and externalizing ones. In treatment of childhood adversity consequences, broader therapy styles aimed at preventing long-term neurological changes work better than the ones aimed at the results of a specific type of abuse.

Widom, C. S., Czaja, S., Wilson, H. W., Allwood, M., & Chauhan, P. (2012). Do the Long-Term Consequences of Neglect Differ for Children of Different Races and Ethnic Backgrounds? Child Maltreatment, 18(1), 42–55. 

The research paper examines very closely related subjects as most of the studies on this list – consequences spanning into adulthood in individuals with an experience of childhood adversity. The parameters studied include unique features, for example, evaluation of IQ in affected individuals and comparing them in regards to their ethnicity. Other parameters include reading ability, occupation, mental health consequences, and criminal and violent behavior, the results showing exciting differences in IQ rates among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. Widom has a unique perspective on the topic as a scholar since her expertise lies in the adjacent field – criminology, but is closely related to the topic of violence, which includes violence against minors. Overall, the study provides detailed information on a variety of mental diagnoses, comparative statistics for mental disorder rates and juvenile activities for the major ethnicity groups, as well as family characteristics that clarify the potential reasons for child maltreatment.

Yampolskaya, S., Chuang, E., & Walker, C. (2019). Trajectories of substance use among child welfare-involved youth: Longitudinal associations with child maltreatment history and emotional/behavior problems. Substance Use & Misuse, 54(3), 437–448.

This study focuses on the link between maltreatment and further substance abuse in the case of adults who experienced it in their childhood. The research also points out the behavioral and emotional factors that majorly contribute to the prospect of substance abuse among youth involved in the child welfare system. This research explores yet another aspect of the consequences of early maltreatment. However, it does not speak of gender and/or racial factors. It draws a strong connection between substance abuse among the individuals who experienced maltreatment, neglect, or other forms of abuse early in life, which is beneficial to the current research. Yampolskaya presents herself as a reliable source, with a long history of research explicitly targeted at child abuse and its complications and consequences. Thus, even though this paper exemplifies another narrower-demographic study, it provides valuable information about substance abuse and child maltreatment, proving beneficial for the research, as this particular aspect has not been covered previously.

References

Bolton, J., Molet, J., Ivy, A., & Baram, T. Z. (2017). New insights into early-life stress and behavioral outcomes. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 14, 133-139. Web.

Clemens, V., Berthold, O., Witt, A., Sachser, C., Brähler, E., Plener, P. L. & Fegert, J. M. (2019). Child maltreatment is mediating long-term consequences of household dysfunction in a population representative sample. European Psychiatry, 58, 10–18.

Crum, K. I., & Moreland, A. D. (2017). Parental stress and children’s social and behavioral outcomes: The role of abuse potential over time. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(11), 3067-3078. Web.

Currie, J., & Widom, C. (2010). Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect on adult economic well-being. Child Maltreatment, 15(2), 111–120. Web.

Dannlowski U., Stuhrmann A., Beutelmann, V., Zanzger., P., Lenzen T, Grotegerd D., Domschke K., Hohoff, C, Ohrmann P., Bauer J., Lindner C., Postert C, Konrad C., Arolt V, Heindel, W., Suslow T., & Kugel H. (2012.) Limbic scars: Long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment revealed by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 71(4), 286-293. Web.

Godinet, M. T., Li, F., & Berg, T. (2014). Early childhood maltreatment and trajectories of behavioral problems: Exploring gender and racial differences. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(3), 544–556. Web.

Johnson, R. M., Kotsh, J. B., Catllier, D.J., Winsor, J. R., Dufort, V., Hunter, W., & Jackson, L. A. (2002). Adverse behavioral and emotional outcomes from child abuse and witnessed violence. Child Maltreatment, 7(3), pp. 179-186. Web.

Lee, R. D., & Chen, J. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and excessive alcohol use: Examination of race/ethnicity and sex differences. Child Abuse & Neglect, 69, 40-48. Web.

Lewis, T., McElroy, E., Harlaar, N., & Runyan, D. (2016). Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Child Abuse & Neglect, 51, 31-40. Web.

Milojevich, H. M., Norwalk, K. E., & Sheridan, M. A. (2019). Deprivation and threat, emotion dysregulation, and psychopathology: Concurrent and longitudinal associations. Development and Psychopathology, 31(3), 847–857. Web.

Nemeroff, C. B. (2016). Paradise lost: The neurobiological and clinical consequences of child abuse and neglect. Neuron, 89(5), 892-909. Web.

Norman R.E., Byambaa M., De R., Butchart A., Scott J., Vos T. (2012). The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med, 9, 11. Web.

Odhayani, A. A., Watson, W. J., & Watson, L. (2013). Behavioral consequences of child abuse. Canadian Family Physician, 59(8), 831-836.

Sheats, K. J., Irving, S. M., Mercy, J. A., Simon, T. R., Crosby, A. E., Ford, D. C., Merrick, M. T., Annor, F. B., Morgan, R. E. Debowska, A., & Boduszek, D. (2017). Child abuse and neglect profiles and their psychosocial consequences in a large sample of incarcerated males. Child Abuse & Neglect, 65, 266-277. Web.

Strathearn, L., Giannotti, M., Millis, R., Kisely, S., Najman, J., & Abajobir, A. (2020). Long-term cognitive, psychological, and health outcomes associated with child abuse and neglect. Pediatrics, 146(4), 1-17. Web.

Taylor J., Bradbury-Jones C., Lazenbatt A. & Soliman F. (2016). Child maltreatment: Pathway to chronic and long-term conditions? Journal of Public Health, 38(3), 426–431. Web.

Vachon, D. D., Krueger, R. F., Rogosch F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2015). Different forms of child maltreatment have comparable consequences among children from low-income families. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(11), 1135–1142. Web.

Widom, C. S., Czaja, S., Wilson, H. W., Allwood, M., & Chauhan, P. (2012). Do the long-term consequences of neglect differ for children of different races and ethnic backgrounds? Child Maltreatment, 18(1), 42–55. Web.

Yampolskaya, S., Chuang, E., & Walker, C. (2019). Trajectories of substance use among child welfare-involved youth: Longitudinal associations with child maltreatment history and emotional/behavior problems. Substance Use & Misuse, 54(3), 437–448. Web.

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PsychologyWriting. (2022, September 28). Experience of Trauma from Child Maltreatment. Retrieved from https://psychologywriting.com/experience-of-trauma-from-child-maltreatment/

Reference

PsychologyWriting. (2022, September 28). Experience of Trauma from Child Maltreatment. https://psychologywriting.com/experience-of-trauma-from-child-maltreatment/

Work Cited

"Experience of Trauma from Child Maltreatment." PsychologyWriting, 28 Sept. 2022, psychologywriting.com/experience-of-trauma-from-child-maltreatment/.

References

PsychologyWriting. (2022) 'Experience of Trauma from Child Maltreatment'. 28 September.

References

PsychologyWriting. 2022. "Experience of Trauma from Child Maltreatment." September 28, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/experience-of-trauma-from-child-maltreatment/.

1. PsychologyWriting. "Experience of Trauma from Child Maltreatment." September 28, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/experience-of-trauma-from-child-maltreatment/.


Bibliography


PsychologyWriting. "Experience of Trauma from Child Maltreatment." September 28, 2022. https://psychologywriting.com/experience-of-trauma-from-child-maltreatment/.