Procrastination is characterized by the constant postponement and delay of tasks without evident necessity. This condition is common, especially in the academic environments “affecting 23– 95% of university students” (Boysan and Kiral 284). A negative mindset may be an additional cause of procrastination. Boysan and Kiral suggest that procrastination may be a personality trait or context and circumstance-dependent (285). They also note that students with low self-esteem and a locus of control often have reduced academic performance, which also negatively affects their condition. In particular, Walker divides procrastinators into four groups and characterizes them (78-80). It is noteworthy that three types out of four have the reason for procrastination in either low self-esteem and lack of faith in oneself or in a negative comparison with other people. Thus, the roots of the emergence of procrastination lie in the personal traits of an individual, but a negative mindset aggravates the development of the condition.
In the chapter “Overcoming the Patterns of Powerlessness That Lead to Procrastination,” Walker reports on procrastination treatment sessions among 12 people. The author notes the factors which influence the formation of the state and emphasizes that “procrastinators denigrate themselves, are highly self-conscious, make negative social comparisons, and lack of self-control” (Walker 76). A model of addressing each of the factors and reporting of the sessions is described further. Thus, the article offers a narrower view of the problem of procrastination treatment. The author not only describes the essence and causes of the condition but also describes an approach to its regulation. Through the analysis of participants in this treatment, Walker investigates the causes and consequences of procrastination. Thus, the researcher comes to the same conclusions as Boysan and Kiral but does it exclusively empirically. Whereas mentioned, researchers use various measurements and information from relevant literature to identify statistics.
The article “Associations Between Procrastination, Personality, Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, and Locus of Control” by Boysan & Kiral provides information on various factors that influence the development of procrastination. The study was conducted on a group of people using the Aiken procrastination inventory, Levenson multidimensional locus of control scale-short form, Big Five Inventory, Frost multidimensional perfectionism scale, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Boysan and Kiral 286-287). This study is of interest since it empirically examines the influence of various factors on the manifestations of procrastination.
The article also offers more accurate data obtained through different measurement tools and a larger sample of people compared to Walker’s article. Moreover, the authors compare the results obtained with information available in the literature, which increases the relevance of the study. The article concludes that, along with other factors, “procrastination was inversely associated with concern over mistakes and was inversely associated with parental criticism in the regression mode” (Boysan and Kiral 288). Thus, the study finds the partial influence of negative attitudes towards oneself, one’s own actions, and relationships with others on the occurrence of procrastination, as Walker does. The impact of increased self-awareness, lack of self-control, and the presence of negative social comparisons in both articles are noted. Thus, both studies arrive at the same conclusions but have different goals and methods.
Both studies reviewed indicate that procrastination results from a combination of personality traits and external circumstances. A negative mindset is a factor which aggravates the development of the condition. Procrastinators tend to suffer from low self-esteem and constantly negatively compare themselves and their actions to those around them. Thus, both presented studies come to the same conclusions, but in different ways, complementing each other. It is especially important that together they provide detailed statistics and a practical model for the treatment of procrastination.
Boysan, Murat, and Kiral, Erkan. (2017). “Associations Between Procrastination, personality, Perfectionism, Self-Esteem and Locus of Control.” British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 284-29.
Walker, Lilly. “Overcoming the Patterns of Powerlessness That Lead to Procrastination.” Counseling the Procrastinator in Academic Settings, edited by Henri Schouwenburg et al., American Psychological Association, 2004, pp. 75-89.