Several positive aspects can be highlighted in the Personality Inventory (PI) by H. J. Eysenck. Firstly, the researcher pays tribute to his predecessor K. Jung and brings the physiological bases under the psychological types. Secondly, all psychological manifestations, normal and pathological, are considered continuums of values and not as extreme types (Ruch et al., 2021). However, one of the coordinates relating to body types remains discrete even in this case.
In addition, Eysenck expanded the idea of the versatility and diversity of personality, at least with the help of the temperament model. Each type of character is naturally conditioned; one can not speak about “good and bad” temperaments but only about different ways of behavior and activity (Ruch et al., 2021). Fourthly, the Eysenck model illustrates the possibility and necessity of simultaneous and factor analysis to identify personal variables and analyze these elements according to objective criteria. The development of a theoretical construct and the creation of a measuring technique can occur in parallel, with cyclic transitions from description to measurement. Fifthly, there is the presence of “indicators of lies,” which demonstrates the tendency of a respondent to give “good” answers to questions. Thus, it is possible to determine the objectivity or subjectivity of the results.
Despite the presence of a wide range of positive features of PI, it also has several weaknesses. Firstly, the Personality Inventory (PI) refers to the person’s subjective experience; an individual may not have sufficient understanding of reflection, or self-knowledge of their conditions, and thoughts. Secondly, there is a chance of falsification of answers, as well as purposeful and sometimes unconscious distortion of the reported information. Thirdly, periodically the responses can be distorted by certain attitudes, the “facade effect,” and the effect of social desirability. The issue of falsification of answers is manifested in the subjects’ tendency to choose a socially desirable alternative when answering questions. This preference may indicate that individuals do not know themselves well enough and strive to look better within the “facade effect” framework. On the other hand, a client who chooses unfavorable responses may feel the need for someone’s attention, sympathy, or help. Fourth, the results are unstable over time due to personality changes.
Undoubtedly, assessing a client’s personality is one of the most important criteria during a therapy session. This process provides the basis for the effective implementation, use, and application of theoretical and practical knowledge and skills. A specialist knows and understands how to build a creative, fruitful conversation with a customer competently, influencing a “consumer of services” in the right direction. Indeed, critical in this procedure are individual and cultural empathy, observation, and examination of a person and their social environment. In particular, it is essential to use methods of positive growth and development (Kamphuis & Finn, 2018). The client’s assessment is directly related to analyzing their personality, inner world, origins of problems, and the need for psychological help. Moreover, this process also includes understanding the social environment in which individual lives and makes decisions. Each customer is unique in their conceptualization of the world. Hence, a psychologist needs to understand a client before acting (Kamphuis & Finn, 2018). A person’s perception of life phenomena depends on their cultural origins. Therefore, actions taken without understanding the connection between an individual and the environment are naive and sometimes dangerous for a client.
Kamphuis, J. H., & Finn, S. E. (2018). Therapeutic assessment in personality disorders: Toward the restoration of epistemic trust. Journal of Personality Assessment, 101(6), pp. 662-674.
Ruch, W., Heintz, S., Gander, F., Hofmann, J., Platt, T., & Proyer, R. T. (2021). The long and winding road: A comprehensive analysis of 50 years of Eysenck instruments for the assessment of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 169, pp. 1-11.