How Parents and Teachers Can Release Anxiety in Children

Aydin, U. (2019). Test anxiety: Gender differences in elementary school students. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(1), 21-30. Web.

Test anxiety affecting academic performance is a common phenomenon among schoolchildren, especially those whose parents have high requirements for children’s academic achievements. Aydin’s (2019) study focuses on gender differences in test anxiety in general and in its three dimensions separately – behavioral, cognitive, and physiological among fourth-grade schoolchildren. The author revealed that the females are more susceptible to test anxiety. Consequently, interventions to reduce it should pay particular attention to supporting girls in school. The study’s advantage is that the author considered gender differences in test anxiety and its three dimensions. However, the only source of information for the analysis was the children’s reports, which is a significant limitation. The article is of interest to researchers on child anxiety, teachers, and parents.

Brook, C. A., & Schmidt, L. A. (2008). Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(1), 123–143. Web.

Understanding risk factors – biological, environmental, and other aspects – plays an influential role in anxiety management. Brook’s and Schmidt’s (2008) systematic review explores environmental factors contributing to the emergence of a social anxiety disorder (SAD). They include the family environment, cultural and social factors, adverse life circumstances, and gender roles. The review demonstrates that the connection between anxiety and upbringing receives the most attention in studying SAD etiology among researchers. Regarding other aspects, the authors point to the lack of authoritative research. The advantages of the source in presentation, synthesis, and analysis of available information on SAD environmental factors, but the publication year is a drawback. The target audience of the article is anxiety researchers and mental health specialists.

Cartwright‐Hatton, S., Ewing, D., Dash, S., Hughes, Z., Thompson, E. J., Hazell, C. M., Field, A. P., & Startup, H. (2018). Preventing family transmission of anxiety: Feasibility RCT of a brief intervention for parents. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(3), 351-366. Web.

Children of anxious parents have an increased risk of enhancing their anxiety. The randomized controlled trial conducted by Cartwright‐Hatton et al. (2018) proved that an intervention involving teaching parents about skills of maintaining confidence in children reduces the risk of anxiety. As a result, intervention at low cost and without difficulty in carrying out can reduce family transmission of anxiety. The presented measure’s availability and effectiveness are advantages of the study. However, the trial’s drawback is in a small number of participants and available data only from parents excluding children. The article will be interesting to researchers, school counselors, parents, and other specialists.

Chronis-Tuscano, A., Danko, C. M., Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. J., & Novick, D. R. (2018). Future directions for research on early intervention for young children at risk for social anxiety. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(4), 655-667. Web.

Prerequisites and signs of anxiety can be noticed early in children and facilitate actions to reduce disorder risk. Chronis-Tuscano et al. (2018) generalize the existing data on prerequisites to anxiety and offer the directions for future research of interventions. They note that behavioral inhibition (BI) and social withdrawal (SW) promote the emergence of anxiety and provide recommendations for interventions. The advantages of work are in a synthesis of the existing research and in the attention paid to BI and SW factors as their understanding can significantly reduce the anxiety burden. Nevertheless, the research does not disclose new information on a matter of concern. The article’s target audience is researchers choosing directions for a study on anxiety disorders in children.

Hellfeldt, K., López-Romero, L., & Andershed, H. (2020). Cyberbullying and psychological well-being in young adolescence: The potential protective mediation effects of social support from family, friends, and teachers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), 1-16. Web.

New technologies are an essential additional factor in child anxiety. Hellfeldt et al. (2020) found that children involved in cyberbullying – both bullies and victims- have increased anxiety levels and low levels of psychosocial well-being. In cases of online intimidation, social support from parents and teachers can stabilize. The importance of research is in focusing on social support in treating child anxiety. However, the study is limited to data obtained from reports provided by schoolchildren. The article is of interest to teachers, parents, researchers, and specialists working with anxious children.

Lebowitz, E. R., Marin, C., Martino, A., Shimshoni, Y., & Silverman, W. K. (2020). Parent-based treatment as efficacious as cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety: A randomized noninferiority study of supportive parenting for anxious childhood emotions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(3), 362-372. Web.

There are various treatment methods for anxiety disorders in children, and it is crucial to understand their effectiveness. Lebowitz et al. (2020) compared the effectiveness of two treatments – cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and Supportive Parenting for Anxious Childhood Emotions (SPACE). Comparing the results of the two groups demonstrated that both methods effectively reduce anxiety. Consequently, SPACE emphasizes the importance of parental influence on child anxiety and can be an alternative treatment method. The strength of the article is in using multiple methods to assess anxiety levels for further analysis. Nevertheless, follow-up studies are needed to examine the combination of these methods and their comparison with other treatments. The article’s target audience is researchers and practitioners in child mental health.

Poole, K. L., Van Lieshout, R. J., McHolm, A. E., Cunningham, C. E., & Schmidt, L. A. (2018). Trajectories of social anxiety in children: Influence of child cortisol reactivity and parental social anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(6), 1309-1319. Web.

The combination of several factors leading to anxiety in children only increases the risk of the disorder. A prospective longitudinal study conducted by Poole et al. (2018) tested such factors as the presence of an anxious parent, cortisol reactivity, and their combinations. Authors conclude that although family history is an influential factor, often only its combination with physiological causes contributes to clinically significant levels of anxiety. Study design and use of the multi-method approach are strengths of the paper, but the authors still suppose the possibility of results distortion. Nevertheless, the study is of interest to researchers and other professionals connected to the theme.

Szczygieł, M. (2020). When does math anxiety in parents and teachers predict math anxiety and math achievement in elementary school children? The role of gender and grade year. Social Psychology of Education, 23(4), 1023-1054. Web.

Childhood anxiety can be directed towards some specific aspects of their life. For example, Szczygieł (2020) studied mathematical anxiety – feelings of tension, which interfere with manipulating calculations and solving mathematical problems. The author concluded that this type of anxiety is not transmitted from mothers and teachers to children. The study also showed that adult anxiety could predict children’s success in mathematics in some cases. Since math is an essential, necessary skill in life, the article advances in solving the problem of math anxiety, which is its strength. However, more studies should be conducted to verify the results and potential interventions based on them. The article is most interesting for teachers but can also be helpful for researchers, parents, and various specialists.

Tang, S., Xiang, M., Cheung, T., & Xiang, Y. T. (2021). Mental health and its correlates among children and adolescents during COVID-19 school closure: The importance of parent-child discussion. Journal of Affective Disorders, 279, 353-360. Web.

Significant life changes, particularly the closure of schools for quarantine, during the pandemic COVID-19 affected the children’s mental health. Tang et al. (2021) conducted an online survey of primary and middle school children to discover their feelings about the situation and the changes that arose in response. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress spread among children, but life satisfaction levels remain high. The authors noted that discussing the current crisis with parents alleviates symptoms and can be a protective mechanism. This conclusion is an advantage of the article, as it draws attention to the importance of discussion by parents in supporting children and reducing anxiety. The disadvantage of the study is the possibility of misinterpretation of questions, especially by elementary school students. Nevertheless, the article will be interesting to specialists working with children and researchers.

Zare, M., Narayan, M., Lasway, A., Kitsantas, P., Wojtusiak, J., & Oetjen, C. A. (2018). Influence of adverse childhood experiences on anxiety and depression in children aged 6 to 11 years. Pediatric Nursing, 44(6), 267-274. Web.

Negative experiences are an influential risk factor for the emergence of anxiety. However, few studies are directed at the age group of 6-11 years in this factor analysis. Zare et al. (2018) fill this gap with their research and conclude that the prevalence of anxiety and depression among a given age after adverse events is 6%. Attention to the little-studied sample is an advantage of the article. At the same time, the data may be incomplete due to less attention to children’s mental health among pediatricians, which is a limitation of the study. The article’s target audience is researchers, doctors, nurses, and child mental health professionals.

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PsychologyWriting. 2023. "How Parents and Teachers Can Release Anxiety in Children." September 11, 2023.

1. PsychologyWriting. "How Parents and Teachers Can Release Anxiety in Children." September 11, 2023.


PsychologyWriting. "How Parents and Teachers Can Release Anxiety in Children." September 11, 2023.