A number of principles characterize human Growth and development. The principles describe distinctive growth as a conventional and orderly process. It is possible for use to predict the development of children. However, there are different timings of growth and development in children as regards to their personalities. The developmental patterns, the timings of growth milestones have a universal pattern. Sigmund Freud initiated psychoanalytical theories (Beckett. & Taylor, 2009).
He illustrates that unconscious needs control behavior. He developed a theory that explains growth. In his theory, he has divided human development in a sequence of psychosexual stages. Psychosocial theory of development illustrates development and transformation the entire lifespan, on discussing social relations as well as conflicts arising in various periods of development (Newman & Newman, 2010).
Newman & Newman (2010) explains that the founder of the psychoanalysis is Sigmund Freud in his school of thought Freud emphasized on the influence that are enhanced by unconscious mind of human mind on people’s behavior. According to Freud human mind is a composition of the identity, ego and the super ego.
On evaluation of psychosexual theory of human develop one should understand that it entirely focuses on male psychosexual development. Freud’s theories are hard to examine scientifically. Concepts such as low libido or the level of libido are immeasurable and so researches done have a tendency to discredit the work of Freud. In many counter research the researchers have indicated that these predictions about the future are not clear. It is had to determine a current behavior that is caused by a childhood experience and the duration of time that lead to the causation of a particular stage fixation. It is not right to assume the relation of different variables this theory is based on case study and not empirical findings. Actual observations of the children but collection of adult patients were not used to give the hypothesis to the psychosexual theory of human development by Freud (Newman & Newman, 2010).
The Principles of Development
Sigmund indicates that personalities start to be recognized when one hits five years of age. He further states that personality developments are influenced by experiences. These experiences also influence individual’s behavior. Though it is full of controversies Freud psychosexual theory of human development is widely recognized. These psychosexual stages are completely successful (Beckett. & Taylor, 2009)
The Oral Stage
In this stage, the infant’s initial basis of relations is through mouth. This demonstrates how sucking reflex in very important. However, the mouth’s work is eating and the baby gets pressure from such spur through enjoyable actions like flavor and sucking. Because the baby relies on the caretakers, the infant develops reliance and reassurance during oral stimulation.
The weaning stage is the initial conflict in oral stage. This means the infant’s dependence is highly reduced. In case a fixation happens, the individual develops issues on dependency and aggression. Oral dependency develops problem like nail biting, eating and smoking.
The Anal Stage
Anal stage occurs between one and two years of age. This is the time children are trained to toilet and it is the time that brings interest to the erogenous section of the anus. This stage concedes with the capability to manage anal sphincter and hence the ability to withhold or give gifts to people. Being the second stage of the psychosexual stages it develops the conflict of identity, ego and the super ego. In this stage a child gets conflicts with the demands of the parent. The primary stage during the anal stage is low libido, the control of ones blunders and movements of the bowel. At this stage the major point is the training on toilet use and learning on how to control bodily needs as individual (Newman & Newman, 2010).
When a child develops the aforementioned attributes he/ she attains a sense of self reliance. Sigmund Freud believe that the depending the methods used by the parents to approach the training on toilet usage, parents use praise and gifts to encourage positive outcome. This assists the kid to be capable and production. A positive remark boosts the competent and the productivity of children once they become adults.
In regard to the theory by Freud the success mainly relies on the methods approached by the parents during training when they are small.. All parents do not use encouragement methods, there are some who rebuke their children and punish them. Unsuitable parental responses, Negative correcting lead to negative feedback and personality disorder
A successful completion of the stage depends on child parent’s relationship. Inconsiderate requirements that the parents seek are reacted against with the rejection to in actual fact use the lavatory and exaggerated malevolent excretions. Such behaviors from the child will lead to expulsive anal character and a person who does not effectively get through the stage becomes reckless, cluttered and rebellious. Ones over-indulgent people are stated to have such tactics. The opposite of anal expulsive, basically it is called anal retentive this is fundamentally formed when the child is overindulgent. The child finds pleasure in holding faeces in the body. While the stage appears to be on appropriate use of the lavatory it is basically used to analyze conducts and argue. The child needs to be taught certain things in childhood so that they will not over-step boundaries in future (Newman & Newman, 2010).
The Phallic Stage
The third stage of the child development. It is categorized as the stage three of the Feudal stages on development. Both genders in this stage separate the parents in such for the affection. While boys develop castration complex in the third stage, girls’ changes are the development of penis envy. There is a lot of guilt in this stage due to secret sexual desire. There is also the fear of punishment following these desires, these fears are used in suppressing of the feelings and identifying they are not of the same gender commonly known as identification with the aggressor (Newman & Newman, 2010).
This conflict is resolved when one grows to a normal adult. The superego development helps to handle the conflict because it integrates the moral values and gender expectations. In the phallic stage on human development, libidos on the genitals are the main focus. It is an intimately holding the other parent. In girls penis envy never gets fully resolved these fixations continue. Karen Horney ideologies conflicts with this theory, she feel that men sustain inferiority complex due to the fact that they are never in a position to birth.
The Latent Period
This is a period of calm and begins when the child is introduced into school. The child gets introduced to peer groups, hobbies along with extra benefits. This stage is the stage of exploration. Someone is filled wt halo of sexual energy which is frequently bound for other functions. According to him a fixation can take place if certain problems are not defined. These fixations are importunate center of attention on psychosexual early stages. Until such conflicts are dealt with individuals get stuck in certain stages. On such cases one may seem extremely reliant on others and my search for oral stimulation like, drinking and smoking. The stage of three to seven years also known as latency is more of a period than a stage.
The age is usually affected by childbearing differences. Freud explains this stage as a stage with relative stability. In this case the libido is changed from their direction to parents to other ways. The child acquires ethnically considered skillfulness and ethics. During this period the child appears to become accustomed to the reality as therefore processes infantile amnesia. Infantile amnesia is the repression of the earliest traumatic sexual and/or evil memories (Newman & Newman, 2010).
Erik Erikson also developed a stage model on the evolution of ego. In his theory the Freud’s latency stage of human development and analysis corresponded with his stage of “industry and inferiority” on the age six to puberty. In this stage the child is enthusiastic to learning new skills. In this stage there is worth comparison by the child with the other children. This is because the young person can distinguish major disparities and abilities in he/she is capable of developing low self esteem.
The Genital Stage (final stage)
The last stage of Freud Theory analysis human development on psychosexual bases is an advanced level to the earlier latent stage of development. One develops strong interests for the opposite sex. On other stages the interest is based on personal requirements. On successful completion of other stages individuals should be balanced and attainment of warm and caring character. The major goal o this stage is establishment of balance between varied events in life. The concluding phase of the socio-psychology human development analysis level is the genital. (Newman & Newman, 2010) indicates that these stages commences at puberty when individual sexual argues are awakened through the lessons the one has recovered in the other social stages. The direct their sexual energy to the opposite sex friend and the main focus is the genitals pleasure
A deep study of Freud’s work on human development analysis is done through the case study. Most of the studies in the aspect of human behavior have been analyzed on stages of development. it also demonstrates the patterns that bring about this behaviors.. In his study of human development analysis though psycho analytical theory demonstrates mental process that we rationally reflect and converse (Robison, 1968).
According to Robinson defense mechanism is a tactic developed through a person’s ego and it is supposed to protect the mind against the feelings and human thoughts that are hard for the conscious mind to manage. In several cases defense mechanism help to keep inappropriate thoughts from destroying our conscious mind thus gives people an edge over things they can not handle by avoiding them. Beckett. & Taylor (2009) indicates that in people ego is largely the part of the character that deals with unconscious thought and it demand on the personal identity.
Ego hinders people from acting on basic agues although it also works to achieve moral impractical standards which are basically created by super egoism. The component of the unconscious personal reaction are work in a way they should satisfy individuals desires. Notably, super egoism holds traits that internalize morals obtained by parental molding and the other caretakers in the society from. Freud’s indicates that the unconscious mind is a reservoir for personal judgments. It is also a Huber of memories that are not in conscious awareness. Robison (1968) concludes that unconscious mind holds the unpleasant and unwanted memories and wants to influence people behavior.
Erikson, E. H. (1977). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton
Beckett. C, and Taylor. H. (2009). Human Growth and Development Cambridge University Press
Newman. B and Newman. P (2009). Development Through Life, A Psychosocial Approach 10th edition. Thomson Wards worth publishers.
Robison L (1968) Human Growth and Development Centre for European Policy studies
Wesley. F, and Sullivan. E (1986). Human Growth and Development: A Psychological Approach New York, NY: Thames and Hudson. Britannica, Adulthood; Web.
Harder, A (2009) The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Web.
Troyer, L., (2007) Core Issues & Human Development Stages. Web.
Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L., & Barton, S. M. (2003). Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Crisis Life Cycle Model – The Eight stages of Human Development. Web.
Rayner. E, Joyce. A, James. R, Twyman. M & Christopher. C(2005) Human development: an introduction to the psychodynamics of Growth Maturity and aging. Unwin Hyman Publishers Ltd
Robert V. Kail, John C & Cavanaugh K (2010).Human Development: A Life-Span View 5th Ed. Thomson Wards worth publishers.
Sims. M, (1893). Guide to Psychiatry, 3rd edition; Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh and London
Leach, P. (1997). Your Baby and Child: From Birth to Age Five. 5th Edition. New York: Knopf
Marshall S, Pierre R., John W. & Porting, H. (1999) Human Behavior in Global Perspective: An Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology (2nd Edition). Boston: Ellyn and Bacon.
Fisher S, & Greenberg P. (1977). The Scientific Credibility of Freud’s Theories and Therapy, New York: Basic Books
Joan, B, & Laura. A (2008) Inside Out and Outside In: Psychodynamic Clinical Theory and Psychopathology in Contemporary Multicultural Contexts. New York: Jason Aronson.
Gross. L, (1987). Introducing to Erik Erikson; An Invitation to His Thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
John S. & Travers J (1994) Human Development: Across the Lifespan, Brown & Benchmark Publishers
Eugene. E, (1982). Erikson: Identity & Religion. New York; The Seabury Press, “The Theoretical Basis for the Life Model-Research and Resources on Human Development,”. Web.
Richard. S. (1983). Erik Erikson, An Introduction. New York: St. Martin’s Press.