Adolescence is a delicate and exploratory time in life. These formative years are instrumental in a young person’s mental, physical, and emotional development. The implications of technological advancements within the cyber world have had a growing negative impact on this specific age group. Constant interaction defines this generation as they are exposed to direct, real-time contact. Cyberbullying victimization is a consequence of this advanced technology that continues to corrode the mental state of adolescents. Englander et al. claim that cyberbullying interacts with school interactions can be sparked by school events and can lead to school difficulties (2017, p. 148). According to Lerman et al. (2017), “Recognizing the preference of youth to seek informal sources of help for mental health issues, which may include the Internet, the social networking site Facebook was investigated as a potential source of support and help for youth suffering depressive symptoms or disorder” (p. 719). This behind closed doors platform is a monumental form of psychological harassment that has a massive impact on the well-being of young people. According to Iranzo et al. (2019), numerous studies found a groundbreaking link to cyber-victimization within depression, low self-esteem, psychological distress, loneliness, as well as suicide ideation. Esposito et al. (2019) share these affirmations and concludes that suicide rates among adolescents have tripled while hospitalization in relation to suicidal ideation has doubled, both in the past decade.
F-CBT focuses on integrating the family unit as a whole within the patient treatment, and although it has had positive effects, E-TAU treatment also implements forms of CBT. It, therefore, can provide more excellent outcomes involving adolescents with depressive suicidal tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare the efficacy of family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (F-CBT) and enhanced treatment as usual (E-TAU) as treatment options for adolescents who suffer from depression in relation to suicidal ideation.
Teen depression is a severe problem with mental health, creating a lasting sense of sorrow and lack of interest in work. It affects a young person’s thinking, feeling, and behavior and can lead to emotional, functional, and physical difficulties. According to Schrobsdorff (2016), “Adolescents today have a reputation for being more fragile, less resilient, and more overwhelmed than their parents were when they were growing up” (p. 188). Depression may happen throughout life at all times, although symptoms in adolescents and adults may be different. Problems such as peer pressure, university expectations, and changing bodies can lead to numerous ups and downs for young people. However, for some adolescents, lower levels are more than only transient sensations; they are the symptoms of depression.
Depression in teens is not a weakness or a willingness; it may have harsh effects and need long-term therapy. Depression treatments ease symptoms, such as drugs and psychological counseling for most adolescents. According to Cuijpers, “many different types of medications and psychotherapy are currently available, and rigorous studies have shown that antidepressants are more effective than placebo” (2018, p. 2529). The indications and symptoms of teenage depression shift from the past attitude and conduct of the adolescent who can create significant anguish and issues at school or home, social activities, or in other areas of life. During the depression, there are emotional and behavioral changes. The difference between ups and downs, which are part of adolescence and teenage depression, can be challenging to detect. According to Kleiboer et al. (2016), “effective, accessible, and affordable depression treatment is of high importance considering the large personal and economic burden of depression” (p. 1). People should attempt to observe if he or she seems to be able to manage complex sentiments or if life feels overpowering.
The students in the ninth and eleventh grades study the connection between depression and suicide and drug use by adolescents, crimes, food diseases, and risk factors. Drugs are strongly associated with children’s suicide ideation and significantly link with girls’ and boys’ attempts. Suicidal kids are poorly adapted and have little devotion to their families and their schools. Causals show that inappropriate interpersonal relationships with parents, the lack of peer-related contacts, and the occurrence of life lead to decline and suicide. The most significant predictors of suicidal thought are depressive symptoms. Depression among women is projected to include drugs, while drug use increases the susceptibility to suicide. Drug use is simply one class of issue comportments that pose a risk factor for adolescent suicide behavior.
In addition to people with depression, delinquency and eating problems have a direct influence on suicide ideas. As far as drug participation is concerned, these problems are more likely than boys to be suicidal. The similarity and specificity of the predictors for gender- and gender-based problem behaviors. While young women take medications to deal with symptoms of sadness, the usage of medicines seems to be unsuccessful in alleviating these feelings of depression. Understanding suicide ideation dynamics in adolescence has significant consequences for public health, as ideation is a powerful predecessor of efforts, particularly among women.
The death of a child is one of the most severe losses for a parent. When death is caused by suicide, intestinal agony is typically more intense and appalling than ever before. For the past few decades, adolescent suicide has been growing. According to Hill et al., “suicide is the second leading cause of death among children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years in the United States” (2021). Suicide in the United States is one of the main reasons for adolescents mortality. Asarnow et al. claim that “new data indicate alarming increases in suicide death rates, yet no treatments with replicated efficacy or effectiveness exist for youths with self-harm presentations, a high-risk group for both fatal and nonfatal suicide attempts” (2017, p. 506). Young people confront greater demands and difficulties than ever before nowadays. According to Kroning and Kroning (2016), “negative thinking patterns and behaviors can be replaced with effective coping strategies, such as good problem solving, helping with motivation to change, building self-esteem, resolving relationship problems, and learning stress management techniques” (2016, p. 78). Those who are delicate in their emotions and without enough support are more prone to suicide.
Native to many parents, ‘my child’ never would consider suicide. It is an assumption that is quite prevalent but also highly harmful. Teenagers today encounter many demands and problems that might make them more desperate, lonely, and overwhelmed. Instead of growing their brains, they lack maturity and life experience to understand the larger picture – that life may improve – in the event of a tragic loss or refusal or when they view their lives to be imploded or wrecked. Many feel too disgraced or afraid to seek treatment, and some feel that suicide is their one option for relief, which is misguided.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy addresses children, teenagers, adult survivors, and families with problems overcoming the harmful repercussions of early trauma for their unique mental and emotional needs. According to the Assosiation for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, “In a recent follow-up study, the researchers assessed whether a modified version of I-CBT, known as family-focused CBT (F-CBT), can also reduce the rate of suicide attempts (SA), depression, suicidal ideation (SI), or non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a cohort of depressed, suicidal adolescents recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization program” (2019). Cognitive-behavioral treatment (F-CBT) focuses on trauma and is exceptionally responsive to youth’s unique difficulties with post-traumatic stress and discomfort from abuse, violence, or grievance. Since the client is typically a kid, F-CBT often involves parents who are uninjured or other caregivers and integrates family therapy concepts.
Anyone who has unique or repeated experience of mental or physical abuse or who develops post-traumatic symptoms, sadness, or fear caused by loss of one’s family members or exposure to household or community violence might benefit from F-CBT. If a child or adolescent also has significant behavioral difficulties, drug abuse, or suicidal thinking, different therapies such as dialectic behavioral therapy might be more suited as an original protocol, and a trauma-sensitive approach can be followed.
The F-CBT is a quick-run technique generally conducted in eight to thirty sessions in an outpatient clinic, in the homegroup, in a community center, in a clinic, in university, or at home. Miklowitz found that family-focused therapy (FFT) associated hyper accountability with a faster recovery from mood symptoms, more remission time, and a more favorable trajectory in hypomania symptoms for a year than short family education, with 12 sessions of family psychoeducation and communicational skills training. (2020). Cognitive-behavioral methods are utilized to alter misconduct and negative responses and behaviors. A family therapy approach examines the interplay between family members and the various aspects of the family which contribute to the problem.
Over the years, F-CBT has been expanding into programs for young people with severe traumas and abuses. Early trauma may contribute to culpability, indignation, feelings of impotence, abuse, and mental health problems such as despair and fear. Post-traumatic conditions of stress, which impact all people at any time of age, can develop in several ways, including trouble, repeated thought about trauma, emotional numbness, issues of sleep, attention, and severe physical and emotional reactions. In multiple treatment sessions, F-CBT can cure and mitigate the symptoms of post-traumatic stress in teenagers by integrating theories and technology.
Sometimes the words E-TAU and control group are used synonymously but are not identical. Both are comparable in that they are used to compare experimental outcomes with one other. However, the E-TAU can be highly active, albeit controls are a placebo-like inactive technique. For example, medications, ACTs, and housing programs may be part of treating severe mental illness. The particular content is usually not standardized or disclosed in the ‘treatment as usual’ initiatives. The length and scope of the interventions’ as regular therapy’ differed considerably from one experiment to another. As part of the ‘treatment as usual’ procedure, antidepressant medication may be permitted.
There is no predefined TAU manual for therapy. Besides establishing sustainable therapeutic relationships and acute relief, diagnostics, and first therapeutic measures, it is also essential to prepare for the subsequent treatment of underlying mental illnesses and life threats. The aim is to assist the patient in reflecting on the current risk scenario, generating confidence, motives for therapy, and change. The practitioners decide the target points and the substance of the therapy sessions along with the patient autonomously, depending on the problem areas reported by the patient. Therapists are allowed to pick methods and tactics for self-control, social support, and emotional stabilization measures.
Youth is an inquisitive, sensitive phase in life. These years of formation are essential to developing a young person’s mind, body, and mind. The influence on that particular age group has been more adversely affected by technology developments within the cyber world. This generation constantly interacts since they are directly exposed to real-time contact. Cyberbullying is a product of this modern technology, which continues to corrupt young people’s mental status. The enormous psychological harassment behind the closed-door platform has an influence massively on young people’s well-being.
Youth depression is a severe mental health condition, causing a lifelong sense of despair and job shortage. It influences a young person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and can lead to emotional, functional, and physical problems. Although symptoms between teens and adults might be distinct, depression can occur at any stage in life. Problems such as peer pressure, the expectations of the institution, and changes can lead to many ups and downs for young people.
Early signs of depression, mania, or hypomania may be postponed by engaging in the FFT program for young individuals with a family history of bipolar disorders. Mood disease episodes can be delayed. Delay or avoid breakouts of a humoral disorder might have lasting consequences on the psychosocial functioning of young people with high-risk syndromes and of the significant burden of caring for a youngster with early bipolar disease among parents. E-TAU has also been significantly affected as F-CBT is associated with lower suicidal ideation, depression, and non-suicidal self-injuries. At this demographic, higher frequencies of therapy with F-CBT, especially at the beginning of treatment, and alternative techniques of 12 months’ transition to care could be needed while utilizing F-CBT. The studied material showed the work of both methods. If a precise methodology and principle of treatment are required, then F-CBT should be used. E-TAU implies simple methods but is not always accurate, making F-CBT more relevant.
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